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Krzysztof Kościński

How do pairs matched in physical attractiveness form if people are unaware of their own attractiveness?

The correlation of physical attractiveness in romantic partners has been widely documented. However, it has also repeatedly been demonstrated that people are largely unaware of their own attractiveness, which raises the question about the mechanism responsible for the within-pair matching. One hitherto unexplored possibility is that low accuracy in attractiveness self-assessments results from methodological drawbacks. Participants were usually asked to rate their attractiveness on a numeric scale, and independent judges evaluated them on the basis of facial photographs. We hypothesized that the accuracy of self-assessment may be increased if (1) participants and judges evaluate the same characteristic, e.g., both groups assess facial attractiveness, (2) own attractiveness is estimated in a comparative manner (with reference to attractiveness of other individuals) rather than by abstract numbers, (3) judges rate attractiveness of people as seen in video clips rather than in photographs. To test these hypotheses we photographed and videotaped faces of 96 women and 78 men. Independent judges rated attractiveness from these photographs and video clips, and the participants assessed own attractiveness in several ways. None of the above hypotheses was confirmed by statistical analysis. We discuss how the within-pair matching in attractiveness can arise, given such poor awareness of own appeal.

Open access

Barbara Mnich, Janusz Skrzat and Krzysztof Szostek

Abstract

The estimation of age at death is one of the most fundamental biological parameters, determined on skeletal remains in anthropological context. That is why, there is a constant need to improve applied methods. Histomorphometry, which uses microscopic analysis of bone tissue is suggested to be one alternative method. In general, this technique is based on measurements and the determination of the number and density of basic bone structural units, osteons. Osteon density is found to be related with age of the individual. The main goal of this research was to compare results of determined age at death, on the basis of ribs histology, comes from methods proposed by different authors. We analyzed ground cross sections of ribs from archeological origin. The presented methodology is simple in use and effective. Four different methods were tested (Stout and Paine 1992; Cho et al. 2002; Kim et al. 2007; Bednarek et al. 2009). The obtained age results were compared with each other as well as related to the age estimated by standard macroscopic method used in anthropology. Bednarek’s method is recognized to be the most supportive for anthropological analyzes. Methodological issues connected with grinding methodology and results interpretation are also presented. Hypothesis about interpopulation as well as histological and dimorphic differences were confirmed.

Open access

Giulia Gadioli, Cinzia Scaggion and Nicola Carrara

Abstract

The study of the osteological collections preserved at the Museum of Anthropology – University of Padua coming from archaeological excavations dated to the end of 19th and 20th century, is a great opportunity to disseminate still unpublished anthropological data. The aim of this work was the analysis through modern anthropological methodology of the human skeletal remains brought to light in 1983 at the necropolis of Biverone, municipality of San Stino di Livenza (Venice, Northeast Italy). The site, close to Livenza River, began its decadence in the Late Ancient period (4th-5th c. AD) as a result of regional morphological variations and barbarian invasions, that caused an important local depopulation.

The study focused on the anthropological analysis of 121 skeletal individuals, trying to better understand the paleodemographic profile, the state of health and the way of life of the ancient population of Biverone. A preliminary identification of the ancestry was attempted, considering the general lack of information about the Late Ancient Venetian populations.

Open access

Krzysztof Borysławski and Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract

The aim of this work is to evaluate the intensity of possible secular trends among the five subsequent cohorts of Wrocław (Poland) children aged 0, 6, 12 and 24 months. This document describes secular changes in the body length, weight and the Rohrer’s index.

Material: Research material represent the longitudinal studies of five consecutive birth cohorts. The first study involved children born during 1963-1965, and the last in 2003-2005. All of the studies were related to the same social group and were conducted using the same methodology.

There are differences in the intensity and direction of the secular trends in children depending on their age. In both sexes the body length of newborns kept increasing until the end of the nineties and decreased in the last decade. The body weight did not change during the 40-year period. This suggests an important role of maternal regulator in fetal development and therefore no clear response to external environmental factors. Secular changes such as the body length and weight, which are the most adequate to the economic changes in Poland, were observed in children aged 6 and 12 months. It may be a result of their highest ecosensitivity during this period. However, there have not been any clear trends observed in the 24 months age group. This may be due to the increasing participation of genetic factors in the development of the child.

Open access

Aleksandra Lisowska-Gaczorek, Beata Cienkosz-Stepańczak and Krzysztof Szostek

Abstract

The main objective of oxygen isotope analysis is to determine the probable place of origin of an individual or the reconstruction of migration paths. The research are methodologically based on referencing oxygen isotope ratios of apatite phosphates (δ18Op) to the range of environmental background δ18O, most frequently determined on the basis of precipitation.

The present work is a response to the need for providing background for oxygen isotope studies on skeletons excavated in Poland. Currently there no monitoring of the isotope composition of precipitation water in Poland is conducted. For this reason, based on the data generated in the Online Isotopes In Precipitation Calculator (OIPC), a database was developed, containing δ18O levels in precipitation for locations in which exploration work was carried out in the archaeological fields from Poland. In total, 279 locations were analysed. The result of the data analysis was a complete isotope composition map for Poland with four zones distinguished by δ18Ow values.

The observable differences in oxygen isotope composition of precipitation in Poland are sufficient to trace migrations of individuals and populations, although accurate only at the level of macroregions.

Open access

Sadaruddin Biswas, Som Prasad Giri and Kaushik Bose

Abstract

Being a developing nation, rural India is still facing a serious health problem in form of undernutrition particularly among young children. To optimize this problem, the Central Government has been operating a nationwide nutritional intervention programme in the form of Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) scheme. Unfortunately, it has failed to achieve the desired goal during last four decades. Therefore the present study was designed to measure the seriousness and severity of overall undernutrition using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) among the rural Bengalee preschool children of Sagar Block, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 656 preschool children (326 boys and 330 girls) aged 3 to 5 years. Height (cm) and weight (kg) measurements were taken according to standard procedure, age and sex specific 2 z-scores values of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age were used to assess stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively, as per the World Health Organization Guidelines. CIAF was also computed as per standard methodology to assess the degree of undernutrition among the studied children. The overall age and sex combined prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight and CIAF was 26.2%, 35.4%, 51.1% and 61.3%, respectively. CIAF showed a higher prevalence of undernutrition (61.28%) in comparison to other three indicators i.e., stunting, wasting and underweight. We conclude that the nutritional status of the subjects was not satisfactory. It was also established that the CIAF is a better indicator of nutritional status than traditional measures of stunting, wasting and underweight, because it determines overall (total) anthropometric failure.

Open access

Aleksandra Bogucka, Anna Kopiczko and Anna Głębocka

Abstract

Aging processes in a body inevitably lead to changes which may decrease the quality of life of the elderly. Dynapenia is a phenomenon which is still not well known and needs to be studied in the population. The aim of the research was to determine the effects of lifestyle on the risk of developing dynapenia in post-menopausal women. The study included 46 females aged 71.4 ±5.6 living in the town of Wysokie Mazowieckie. Basic body dimensions and body composition elements were assessed with the use of anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A direct interview method with the use of the modified Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) was applied. In order to assess the prevalence of dynapenia, handgrip strength was measured with the use of hydraulic dynamometer. Physical activity was assessed with the use of a pedometer. The respondents’ nutrition was examined in an interview concerning their diet from the 24 hours preceding the examination according to the methodology of Food and Nutrition Institute (FNI). The intake of energy and nutritional elements in a diet was calculated with using DIETA 5.0 computer software. Dynapenia was diagnosed in 21.7% of the examined women. The women with dynapenia had significantly bigger waist and hip circumferences and higher BMI (p<0.05) as well as significantly weaker hand muscles than healthy women (p<0.001). Females with dynapenia spent significantly more time in a sedentary position, i.e. talking on the phone, participating in religious rituals or watching TV (p<0.05) compared to women without dynapenia. No significant differences concerning the diet of women with and without dynapenia were revealed. Physical activity may significantly decrease the risk of dynapenia among women over 60 years of age. Furher research is needed to assess the risk of dynapenia and methods of its prevention.

Open access

Ivan Jerković, Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić and Šimun Anđelinović

Abstract

The determination of sex is one of the first steps in anthropological analysis. When skeletal remains are fragmented, the most useful approach is application of osteometric methods. The methods are population specific, and therefore require development of discriminant functions for each population group.

The aim of this study was to test sexual dimorphism of femoral measurements and to calculate discriminant functions applicable for sex determination on fragmented skeletal remains on the late antique sample from the Eastern Adriatic coast (2nd-6th century AD).

214 randomly chosen skeletons from the excavation site Solin-Smiljanovac were analyzed. Sex and age were assessed using standard anthropological methods, and skeletons were examined for pathologic and traumatic changes. In the next step, we selected 27 female and 48 male skeletons free of peri- or post-mortem changes that could affect measurements Eight standard femoral measurements were taken. Sexual dimorphism was initially compared using independent sample t test, after which discriminant functions were computed.

All femoral measurements showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism (p<0.001). Ten discriminant functions for every part of femur were calculated and obtained classification accuracy of 73.1-91.8%. This study reached relatively high classification, which will improve further analysis of the skeletal remains from the Salona necropolis. Due to similar population structure in the Roman period across the Adriatic coast, the discriminant functions could be applicable for all populations from the same period and area. This study also raised a few methodological questions showing that when creating discriminant functions we should consider not only the accuracy, but also the applicability based on the experience from the anthropology laboratory that considers the state of preservation and frequent pathology.

Open access

Nicollete Naidoo, Goran Štrkalj and Thomas Daly

The alchemy of human variation: Race, ethnicity and Manoiloff's blood reaction

This paper examines the research on race determination conducted by Russian biochemist E.O. Manoiloff in the 1920s. Manoiloff claimed to have discovered a method which detected racial identity of an individual by a simple chemical reaction performed on a subject's blood sample. The method was published in one of the leading anthropological journals and it was not questioned for some time. It is obvious today that Manoiloff's claims were nothing short of ridiculous. The present study, based on the experimental history of sciences, tries to elucidate Manoiloff's procedures and reasons for his ‘success’. His experiments were repeated using both original and modern equipment. It has been demonstrated that Manoiloff's procedures, although rigorous at first glance, were highly arbitrary and methodologically flawed. It would appear that the socio-political and scientific contexts of the early twentieth century which favoured belief in the existence of clearly distinguishable racial types played a crucial role in the initial positive response to Manoiloff's research.

Open access

Barbara Woźniak

religion. 1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 179-189 Ellison C. 1994. Religion, the life stress paradigm, and the study of depression. In: JS Levin, editor. Religion in aging and health. Theoretical foundations and methodological frontiers. 1st edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: A SAGE Focus Edition. 78-124. Ellison C, Levin JS. 1998. The religion-health connection: evidence, theory and future directions. Health Edu Behav 25:700-720. Enright R, Freeman S, Rique J. 1998. The psychology of interpersonal forgiveness