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Robert Stefan Rowiński

Scotland (eds.: A.V. Holden, D. Bevan), Forestry Commission Report, Edinburgh, Scotland, 31-51. Thistle H.W., Teske M.E., Miller P.C.H. 2010. Modeling of pesticide application and drift. In: Air Quality Modeling - Theories, Methodologies, Computational Techniques, and Available Databases and Software. Vol. IV - Advantes and Updates (ed.: P. Zanetti), The EnviroComp Group and Air and Waste Management Association. Van de Zande. J. 2013. Drift reduction classes in the Netherland. Modelling Spray Drift. Workshop 10-11.07.2013, Wageningen

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Pavol Múdry, Andrea Hricová, Gabriela Libiaková and Alena Gajdošová

, P. - JURÁČEK, Ľ. 1998. Popis a rozlíšenie odrôd slnečnice. Metodické postupy separácie izoenzýmov ACP, GOT, MDH, ME, PGI, PGM a SKD druhu slnečnica ročná ( Helianthus annuus L.) [Description and distinguishing of sunflower genotypes. Methodological procedures of isoenzymes separation of ACP, GOT, MDH, ME, PGI, PGM and SKD of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.)]. In Poľnohospodárska výroba a skúšobníctvo , vol. 6 , 1998, no. 4, pp. 32-36. MÚDRY, P. - JURÁČEK, Ľ. 1999a. Metodologické postupy separácie izoenzýmov IDH, a PGD druhu hrach

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Yuejin Yuan, Libin Tan, Yingying Xu, Jixian Dong, Yu Zhao and Yueding Yuan

REFERENCES 1. Abraao A.S., Lemos A.M., Vilela A., Sousa J.M., Nunes F.M., Influence of osmotic dehydration process parameters on the quality of candied pumpkins. Food Bioprod. Process., 2013, 91, 481–494. 2. Acosta O., Vıquez F., Cubero E., Optimisation of low calorie mixed fruit jelly by response surface methodology. Food Qual. Prefer., 2008, 19, 79–85. 3. Azam M., Haq M.A., Hasnain A., Osmotic dehydration of mango cubes: Effect of novel gluten-based coating. Drying Technol., 2013, 31, 120–127. 4. Bejaoui M.A., Beltran G., Aguilera M

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Omid M. Ghoochani, Azadeh Bakhshi, Matthew Cotton, Azar Hashemi Nejad and Mansour Ghanian

References Atiqul Haq S.M., Vanwing T., Hens L. 2010. Perception, Environmental Degradation and Family Size Preference: a Context of Developing Countries. J. Sustain. Dev., 3 (4): 102-108. Addams H., Proops J.L. (eds.) 2000. Social discourse and environmental policy: an application of Q methodology. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham. Anderson B.A., Romani J.H., Phillips H. Wentzel M., Tlabela K. 2007. Exploring environmental perceptions, behaviors and awareness: water and water pollution in South Africa

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Nencho Deliiski and Natalia Tumbarkova

Abstract

This paper describes a methodology for experimental research of the change in the temperature and humidity of the air processing medium and also in the temperature at 4 points of the longitudinal section of logs during freezing. The suggested methodology is used to research the change in the mentioned parameters of poplar logs with diameters of 240 mm, lengths of 480 mm and moisture content above the hygroscopic range during 50 h of freezing in a freezer at a temperature of about -30 °C. The automatic measurement and recording of the parameters is carried out with the help of Data Logger type HygrologNT3 produced by the Swiss firm ROTRONIC. The precise instrumentation allowed, for the first time ever, the measuring of the impact the latent heat released by the free water on the log had on the warming up of the wood during water crystallization in the logs.

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Sara E. Vero, Mark G. Healy, Tiernan Henry, Rachel E. Creamer, Tristan G. Ibrahim, Patrick J. Forrestal, Karl G. Richards and Owen Fenton

has relied upon arbitrary decisions ( Vomocil, 1965 ), reflecting methodological limitations. While the importance of achieving equilibrium prior to adjustment of applied pressure is universally acknowledged in the literature ( Russell and Richards, 1938 ; Nimmo, 1990 ; Khanzode et al ., 2002 ; Hunt and Skinner, 2005 ; Šimůnek and Nimmo, 2005 ), there is no practical method of assessing its status in standard laboratory centrifuges without complex inflight monitoring equipment ( Reis et al ., 2011 ), which may be unavailable in many laboratories. It is

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Natalia Czapiewska, Sonia Paź, Marcin K. Dyderski and Andrzej M. Jagodziński

Abstract

One of the crucial debates in vegetation ecology is whether plant communities are discontinuous, distinguishable units or whether they change continuously. Phytosociology assumes discontinuity and its methodology requires subjective sampling during vegetation inventories. For that reason, some researchers argue that phytosociology artificially creates discontinuity among plant communities. Our aim was to assess the continuity between ash-alder riparian forest (Fraxino-Alnetum), and alder swamp forest (Carici elongatae-Alnetum), and to check whether discontinuity observed between these two plant associations is an effect of subjective sample plot choice. We conducted 57 phytosociological relevés within a regular grid covering potential sites of both plant communities. All relevés were arranged in order of decreasing relative cover of the diagnostic species for each plant association resulting in a gentle gradient, indicating a continuous transition from Fraxino-Alnetum to Carici elongatae-Alnetum. Similar results were obtained by detrended correspondence analysis. The proportion of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, typical to Fraxino-Alnetum, was decreasing with increasing proportion of species from the Alnetea glutinosae class, typical to Carici elongatae-Alnetum. This shift followed a gradient of ecological light-moisture indicator values. Our results confirmed continuous transition between two plant communities and led us to the conclusion that discontinuity resulted from the standard sampling protocol used in classical phytosociology. This protocol, however, is useful in searching for typological patterns, required for classification of plant communities, which is the main aim of phytosociology. Nevertheless, it does not provide full insight into the variability of vegetation and introduces uncertainty when trying to understand ecosystem dynamics. This uncertainty should be taken into account when phytosociological data are used for nature conservation recommendations and to draw conclusion about vegetation dynamics.

Open access

Önder Yildiz and Birgül Bulut

quality of gluten-free cake. PhD thesis, 2010. Yuzuncu Yil University, Department of Food Engineering, Van, Turkey. 28. Yildiz O., Dogan I.S., Optimization of gluten-free cake prepared from chestnut flour and transglutaminase: Response surface methodology approach. Int. J. Food Eng., 2014, 10 (4), 737–746.

Open access

Gulzar Ahmad Nayik and Vikas Nanda

Probability and Statistics 1975 4th ed. Duxbury Press North Settuate, MA 273 16. Montgomery, D.C., Design and Analysis of Experiments, Response Surface Methodology, 2002, 5 th ed., Wiley, New York, pp. 416–419. Montgomery D.C. Design and Analysis of Experiments, Response Surface Methodology 2002 5th ed. Wiley New York 416 419 17. National Honey Board, Honey Varietals, 2010. Available at: [ http://www.honey.com ]. National Honey Board, Honey Varietals 2010 Available at: [ http://www.honey.com ]. 18. Nayik G

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Zhenzhou Zhu, Qingyan Guan, Ying Guo, Jingren He, Gang Liu, Shuyi Li, Francisco J. Barba and Michel Y. Jaffrin

**The authors appreciate the International Cooperation Research Funding granted by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2014DFG32310) and the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371727). REFERENCES Ahmed M., Akter M.S., and Eun J.-B., 2011. Optimization conditions for anthocyanin and phenolic content extraction form purple sweet potato using response surface methodology. Int. J. Food Sci Nutr., 62(1), 91-96. Barba F.J., Brianceau S., Turk M., Boussetta N., and Vorobiev E., 2015a. Effect of alternative