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Lucia Balagova and Daniela Jezova


Objective. The measurement of cortisol in hair became a popular and frequently used methodology in human stress research. This methodological approach, depending on the length of hair analyzed, allows to reflect cortisol secretion over prolong time periods in a retrospective fashion. There is a big variability in the experimental approaches to cortisol extraction used in individual laboratories. Moreover, there are many methodological details which are not described in most of the published papers, although they may be influential. The aim of the present study was to identify and optimize selected methodological steps of hair cortisol extraction.

Methods. As the starting point served the methodology of Xiang et al. (2016). A hair pool was used to test the procedures. The main steps modified were pulverization, methanol extraction and centrifugation.

Results. In the presented procedure, we decreased the speed and duration of the pulverization, we increased the volume of methanol and increased the time and speed of centrifugation. The results showed obtaining lower variability and higher cortisol concentrations than those we obtained by the methodology of Xiang et al. (2016), which was optimized.

Conclusion. The presented methodology is relatively simple and is likely to provide reliable results with low variability of cortisol concentrations measured in the same sample.

Open access

Olha Savytska

References 1. Meshko H. M. (ed.) V. V. Kravets: Preparation of future teachers to the preservation and strengthening of the professional health: [monograph]. Ternopil, TNPU by V. Hnatyuk, 2012: 468. 2. Guslyakova N. I.: Psychological mechanisms of formation of the professional consciousness of the future teacher: author’s abstract. dis. of PhD, Samara, 2010: 40. 3. Yadov V. A.: On the dispositional regulation of social behavior of a person. Methodological problems of social psychology: ed. E.V. Shorokhova. Moscow, 1975. 4. Akopov H. V

Open access

Joanna Róg, Ewa Stelmach, Bożena Śpila, Jacek Gajewski, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Aleksandra Korzeniowska, Joanna Tomaka and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz


Ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids are compounds belonging to the group of essential fatty acids (EFAs). The history of the discovery of EFAs dates back to the 1930s of the twentieth century, however, growing interest in ω-3 EFAs in the context of mental health has been observed since the year 2000. In view of their multidirectional action, these compounds are a promising form of adjunctive therapy of many illnesses, including psychiatric disorders. The present article aims to review the literature on the clinical applicability of ω-3 EFAs in treating schizophrenia. We present the results of preclinical studies in this area and the mechanisms of ω-3 EFAs action discussed by the authors. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the possibility of using ω-3 EFAs in schizophrenia are characterized in detail. The results of the tests are not clear, which may result from the methodological diversity of interventions made. Ω-3 EFAs seem to be a promising form of adjunctive therapy of schizophrenia. Further research is needed, which will allow for defining groups of patients in which intervention will bring the expected results.

Open access

Olena Secheiko



The aim of the study was to establish depth and substantive characteristics of intrapersonal conflicts of bloggers. Internal conflicts were analyzed at the levels of individual typological characteristics, self-conception, and value orientation of personality.

Research methodology.

The study was based on the method of content analysis and psychodiagnostic tests. 100 respondents (50 respondents who have blogs and 50 respondents who do not have blogs) were examined with Sobczyk’s individual typological questionnaire, Stephenson’s Q sorting, Budassi’s scale of self-assessment, Leary’s interpersonal diagnosis of personality, Fantalova’s value / accessibility correlation in different life spheres. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were applied for statistical data processing.

Research results.

The results of the survey support the hypothesis regarding the special character of the intra-personal conflicts of bloggers in comparison with those people who do not have blogs and use the Internet less often. In fact, conflicts between real self and virtual self are characteristic of bloggers. Most of the tension is the result of contradiction of ideas about their personal social and communicative competence and the opposition of coping strategies “acceptance of struggle – avoidance of struggle”.


There are different views on how the Internet influences psychological wellbeing. Social networks allow bloggers to present themselves in a certain desired light, to create some image, to stress their unique features, to attract attention to those character properties which are not manifested in real life as desired.

Open access

Tetiana Yablonska and Tetiana Melnychuk


The goal of the article is to describe the theoretical and empirical research of characteristics of families under non-normative crises, having as an example the families of combatants participated in the anti-terrorist operation in Ukraine. The following family crises are discussed: normative crises, as period of transition from one stage of the family life cycle to another and non-normative crises caused by traumatic life events.

Research methodology. In order to differentiate more clearly the families of war veterans (those who returned from the anti-terrorist operation zone were examined) and their reactions to the crisis, a sample consisted of chosen nuclear families and the attention was focused on the marital subsystem as a family basis. At the end, survey and psychological testing of war veterans’ wives were conducted; the following diagnostic techniques were used: the author’s questionnaire, FACES-3 method (D.Olson), the questionnaire of family anxiety (E.Eydemiller); the methods of mathematical statistics were used to estimate the data.

Research results. The data of the empirical study of the 36 families of war veterans who participated in the military operations in the ATO zone (Ukraine) show that such non-normative family crisis is characterized by family system imbalance and its correction requires adaptation of the family as a whole system to the new reality. Most war veterans’ families undergo series of transformations associated with changes in family structure, communication, significant emotional stress.

Discussion. Psychological assistance to war veterans’ families should include psychological learning, prevention and resolving of marital relationship problems, including construction of a new family image, joint life prospects, discussion and transformation of family rules and regulations, development of family cohesion and communication.

Open access

Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz


Introduction: Sleep paralysis (SP) is a condition that widely occurs among people all over the world. It has been known for thousands of years and is rooted in the culture of many countries. It arouses strong emotions, though still little is known about it. The clinical picture of the disorder can be very diverse. It is often accompanied by hypnopompic and hypnagogic hallucinations, somatic complaints and the feeling of intense anxiety. A feeling of paralysis in the body with inhibited consciousness is always observed with the experience. SP pathophysiology is not fully understood, however, most theories explaining this phenomenon are based on the assumption that it results from dysfunctional overlap of REM sleep and wakefulness. It is experienced by healthy people, but it is more often associated with somatic and mental disorders, which is why it is becoming an object of interest for researchers.

Aim: The aim of this work is to present the most important information about the disorder known as sleep paralysis - its history, cultural context, pathophysiology, prevalence, symptomatology, coexistence with other somatic and mental disorders as well as diagnostics and available forms of prevention and treatment.

Materials and methodology: The available literature was reviewed using the Google Scholar bibliographic databases searching the following keywords: sleep paralysis, REM sleep parasomnias, sleep disorder, night terrors and time descriptors: 1980-2018.

Results 1. Sleep paralysis has already been described in antiquity, and interpretations related to its occurrence are largely dependent on culture and beliefs.

2. Symptomatology of the disorder is very diverse: both mental and somatic symptoms are present.

3. The pathophysiology of the disorder has not been fully explained. The basis of most theories regarding sleep paralysis is the assumption that it results from the dysfunctional overlap of REM sleep and wakefulness.

4. The prevalence of SP at least once in a lifetime is 7.6% in the general population, although it is estimated that it is much more frequent in people with various mental and somatic disorders.

5. Treatment of SP is associated with a change in lifestyle and the use of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.

Open access

I Rueda, I Banegas, I Prieto, R Wangensteen, AB Segarra, AB Villarejo, M De Gasparo, JD Luna, F Vives, M Ruiz-Bailen and M Ramirez-Sanchez

classifications and health disorders. Laterality 10, 429–440, 2005. Clark CE. Difference in blood pressure measurements between arms: methodological and clinical implications. Curr Pharm Des 21, 737–743, 2015. Dubey RK, Oparil S, Imthurn B, Jackson EK. Sex hormones and hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 53, 688–708, 2002. Dunne FP, Barry DG, Ferriss JB, Grealy G, Murphy D. Changes in blood pressure during the normal menstrual cycle. ClinSci (Lond) 81, 515–518, 1991. Dunson DB, Baird DD, Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR. Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy

Open access

Krzysztof Siejko, Aneta Tylec, Halina Dubas-Ślemp, Piotr Książek, Bartłomiej Drop, Artur Kochański and Katarzyna Kucharska

References 1. Mazur I, Karnieja P, Jończyk J. Zdrowie psychiczne. Organizacja -Zarządzanie - Standardy. Wrocław: 2015. 2. A. Denys. Zagrożenia Zdrowia Publicznego. Wybrane zagadnienia, ABC Wolters Kluwer, Warszawa: 2014. 3. Kiejna A, Adamowski T, Piotrowski P, Moskalewicz J, Wojtyniak B, Świątkiewicz G et al. Epidemiology of mental disorders and access to mental health care. EZOP – Poland” – research methodology Psychiatria Pol. 2015; 49(1):5–13. 4. Załuska M. The community-based psychiatric care model and changes in the health system

Open access

Joanna Róg and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

K., Rudolph N., Sauer H. Cannabinoids influence lipid-arachidonic acid pathways in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007; 32(10): 2067-73. 103. Smesny S., Riemann S., Riehemann S., Bellemann M.E., Sauer H. Quantitative measurement of induced skin reddening using optical reflection spectroscopy- -methodology and clinical application. Biomed Tech (Berl) 2001; 46(10): 280-6. 104. Smesny S., Rosburg T., Klemm S., Riemann S., Baur K., Rudolph N., Grunwald S., Sauer H. The influence of age and gender on niacin skin test results - implications for the

Open access

K. Voglova, J. Bezakova and Iveta Herichova

000968, 2014. Garber KB, Visootsak J, Warren ST. Fragile X syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet 16, 666−672, 2008. Gavrilov K, Saltzman WM. Therapeutic siRNA: principles, challenges, and strategies. Yale J Biol Med 85, 187−200, 2012. Hanke M, Hoefig K, Merz H, Feller AC, Kausch I, Jocham D, Warnecke JM, Sczakiel G. A robust methodology to study urine microRNA as tumor marker: microRNA-126 and microRNA-182 are related to urinary bladder cancer. Urol