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Journalism and Gender

Toward a Multidimensional Approach

Iiris Ruoho and Sinikka Torkkola

Abstract

In this article, we raise some methodological questions regarding the study of journalism and gender. We start with the idea that in many studies, researchers tend to think that the relationship between gender and journalism is external, that is, gender and journalism are considered essentially separate phenomena. In such a scenario, journalism appears to be gender neutral. Instead of theoretically keeping journalism and gender apart, we suggest that it is worth studying journalism as a gendered institution with its own history, culture, and social roles. We ask how the understanding of the relationship between journalism and gender may change if different social, cultural, and conventional dimensions of journalism are examined. Our main argument is that journalism and its relationship to gender can be investigated systematically as a multidimensional object that highlights various aspects of both concepts, depending on the specific research focus. Based on our former study, we aim to develop a model for examining these diverse facets of journalism.

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Ivar John Erdal

Abstract

Digitization of production has facilitated changes in the organization and practices of journalism. Technological convergence, media convergence and organizational convergence have helped change the way in which news is made.

A substantial amount of research has been done on news production in general, and television news in particular. However, little research has been done specifically on the production context in a digital, integrated broadcasting environment, taking into account new technology and its relationship to changes in institutional context, production processes and the resulting texts.

The present article discusses some challenges that face research into media organization, challenges that are a result of these developments. The discussion is structured around two main developments: changing professional practices and genre development. The article will also look at where this line of research fits into the larger picture of media studies, and discuss the relationship to existing research in the field.

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Wenche Vagle

. The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold. Hanssen, E.; E. H. Jahr; T. Hoel; O. Rekdal & G. Wiggen (1978) Oslomål. Talemålsundersøkelsen i Oslo (TAUS). Hovedrapport. Oslo: Novus. Itkonen, E. (1978) Grammatical Theory and Metascience: A Critical Investigation Into the Methodological and Philosophical Foundations of “Autonomous” Linguistics. Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science. Series 4, Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, Vol. 5. Amsterdam: John Benjamins

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The Archived Website and Website Philology

A New Type of Historical Document?

Niels Brügger

: Intellect, pp. 75-88. Brügger, N. (2007b) ‘Website History: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in an Emerging Field’, paper presented at The Association of Internet Researchers Conference Internet Research 8.0: Let’s Play, Vancouver, 18-20 October 2007. Brügger, N. (2008a) (forthcoming) Archived Websites between Copies and Versions: Test of Versions in Existing Web Archives. Papers from The Centre for Internet Research: Aarhus: The Centre for Internet Research. Brügger, N. 2008b (forthcoming) ‘Web Archiving - between

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Stinne Gunder Strøm Krogager, Karen Klitgaard Povlsen and Hans-Peter Degn

Abstract

The present article examines cross-media use among 10- to 16-year-old Danish children and adolescents. Our research interest is in identifying and affirming patterns among media use, gender and age. Using a methodological design that combines qualitative and quantitative methods, we interviewed participants regarding their media use and paired our qualitative findings with quantitative rating inquiries generated from Danish commercial databases. Our results suggest that although cross-media use is complex and differs according to age and gender, media are often used for similar purposes, e.g., sustaining social relationships.

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Anders Bo Rasmussen

Abstract

This article provides two examples of the Americanization of Danish journalism through an examination of Danish journalists’ adaptation of New Journalism and investigative journalism as seen through the pages of the Danish Union of Journalists’ periodical Journalisten. The article answers Daniel Hallin and Paolo Mancini’s call for more “concrete” studies of the Americanization process. The study demonstrates how news media in the United States, in the two examples provided, have served as an important source of methodological inspiration for Danish journalists from the late 1960s forward

Open access

Michalis Kokonis

Abstract

In the last ten or fourteen years there has been a debate among the so called ludologists and narratologists in Computer Games Studies as to what is the best methodological approach for the academic study of electronic games. The aim of this paper is to propose a way out of the dilemma, suggesting that both ludology and narratology can be helpful methodologically. However, there is need for a wider theoretical perspective, that of semiotics, in which both approaches can be operative. The semiotic perspective proposed allows research in the field to focus on the similarities between games and traditional narrative forms (since they share narrativity to a greater or lesser extent) as well as on their difference (they have different degrees of interaction); it will facilitate communication among theorists if we want to understand each other when talking about games and stories, and it will lead to a better understanding of the hybrid nature of the medium of game. In this sense the present paper aims to complement Gonzalo Frasca’s reconciliatory attempt made a few years back and expand on his proposal.

Open access

Thomas Bjørner, Andreas Magnusson and Robin Pascal Nielsen

Abstract

The aim of this study is to describe and measure obstacles of narrative immersion in a film. Inspired by a literature review within both game research and film studies, we propose a circular model to describe the dynamic process of different levels of involvement viewers can be in while watching a film. The evaluation is based on a 3D animation short film we have developed to achieve total immersion among viewers. The methodological design involved an attempt to decrease viewers’ involvement in the animation film by using distractions during the viewing. The study follows a mixed method strategy combining observation, a questionnaire and a structured interview. The results revealed that viewers react very differently to the distractions. For some viewers, the animation film was not the perceptual focus, where others were totally immersed. The number of distractions was not dependent on whether the film was watched individually or in groups, and for all participants, the distractions occurred in certain rhythms.

Open access

Donors Do Not Trust

Actor-Networks and Intermedia Agenda-Setting in Online Climate News

Dmitry Yagodin and Matthew Tegelberg

Abstract

Focusing on a story exposing Donors Trust (DT) as a funding source for climate denial campaigns, we introduce actor-network theory (ANT) as a methodological tool for studying online intermedia agenda-setting. The DT story, unveiled by prominent British media in early 2013, had the potential to become a global media sensation. However, this did not occur in two distinct communication actor-networks, Russia and Canada, raising questions regarding climate change journalism and agenda-setting in contemporary networked news environments. This article takes a fresh approach to studying agenda-setting processes by using ANT to trace connections between national climate agendas, networks of power and sites of mediated information. By mapping ties between attributes of DT story actor-networks, it illuminates moments that preclude or facilitate intermedia agenda-setting in online media networks. This demonstrates ANT’s potential to help better understand processes of information dissemination in an era characterised by the exceptional interconnectedness of media landscapes.