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Rudolf Geiger

). Roberts A, ‘Traditional and Modern Approaches to Customary International Law: A Reconciliation’ (2001) 95 American Journal of International Law 757. Talmon S, ‘Determining Customary International Law: The ICJ’s Methodology between Induction, Deduction and Assertion’ (2015) 26(2) European Journal of International Law 417. Tams Ch, ‘Meta-Custom and the Court: A Study in Judicial Law-Making’ (2015) 14 The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 51. Wolfke K ‘Some Persistent Controversies Regarding Customary International Law’ (1993) XXIV

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Władysław Czapliński

terroryzmu międzynarodowego (2013). Kress C, ‘The ICJ and the "Principle of Non-Use of Force” in M Weller (ed), The Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force in International Law (2015) 569. O’Connell ME, ‘Taking Opinio Juris Seriously, A Classical Approach to International Law on the Use of Force’ in E Cannizzaro, P Palchetti (eds), Customary International Law on the Use of Force. A Methodological Approach (2005) 9. Reinisch A, ‘The Changing International Legal Framework for Dealing with Non-State Actors’ in Ph Alston (ed), Non-State Actors and Human

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Cezary Mik

. Symonides J, ‘Konwencja Narodów Zjednoczonych o prawie morza – w 30 lat od jej przyjęcia’ (2012) XXVIII Prawo Morskie 30. Talmon S, ‘Determining Customary International Law: The ICJ’s Methodology between Induction, Deduction and Assertion’ (2015) 26(2) European Journal of International Law 417. Thirlway H, The Sources of International Law (2014). T. Treves, ‘A System for Law of the Sea Dispute Settlement’ in D Freestone, R Barens, D M Ong (eds), The Law of the Sea. Progress and Prospects (2006) 418. Treves T, ‘The General Assembly and the

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Lidia Rodak and Piotr Żak

., Pojęcie słuszności w różnych systemach prawnych [The notion of justice in different legal systems], (1971) 5 Law and State. Tuleja P., Normatywna treść praw jednostki w ustawach konstytucyjnych RP [The normative content of individual rights in the constitutional laws of Poland] Wydawnictwo Sejmowe (Warszawa 1997). Weinberger O., ‘Prima Facie Ought. A Logical and Methodological Enquiry’ (1999) 12 (3) Ratio Juris Wojciechowski B., ‘Dyskursywny model sądowego stosowania prawa - wybrane aspekty’[A discursive model of judicial

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Jacek Srokosz

Universities‘ 30 Oxford Review of Education. Serafin J, ‘Studia - fabryki bezrobotnych?’ [University studies - factories of unemployment?] <http://www.niedziela.pl/artykul/59355/nd/Studia---fabryka-bezrobotnych> accessed 12 March 2016. Seweryński M, ‘Model akademicki czy menedżerski?’ [Academic or managerial model?] (2015) 11 Forum Akademickie <https://www.forumakademickie.pl/fa/2015/11/model-akademicki-czymenedzerski/> accessed 15 March 2016. Siems MM, ‘A World without Law Professors’ in Mark van Hocke (ed), Methodologies of

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Administory

Journal for the History of Public Administration / Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsgeschichte

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Melissa Hamilton

., Intermediate Sanctions ]. Yet, there are other types of sentencing decisions that deserve more attention as they may also substantively exacerbate disparities in outcomes while contributing to mass incarceration. Then, more sophisticated empirical methodologies are available today that permit researchers to better specify statistical models to improve fit to the data and reduce the potential for biases in the results. Plus, there is perhaps insufficient attention to regional variations in sentencing practices. This Article contributes to the literature by producing an

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John Passant

I Introduction Drawing on Marx, and those who have followed in his footsteps, this paper introduces readers to a number of related and interrelated approaches and methodologies There is much debate in Marxist circles about whether Marx, in fact, had a method or even methods. The term here is used to describe the dialectic—totality, contradiction, change—and its application by Marx and others to subsets of the totality of society, including tax, through processes such as abstraction. for understanding tax and tax reform in Australia. It introduces readers

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James E. Pfander

constitutionalism and avoiding inconvenient historical truths, Justice Scalia performed the inevitable judge’s task of fashioning new law out of old. By choosing to deny or obscure his tactics in the standing cases, Justice Scalia could continue to deploy originalist methodology as a sledgehammer in assailing the judge-made law with which he disagreed. II Standing Law Before Justice Scalia’s Arrival Our brief evaluation of the law of standing when Justice Scalia took the oath of office in 1986 Justice Scalia joined the Court in 1986, after having spent four years on United

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Jane Marriott

as neutral judicial methodology. Erwin Chemerinsky, The Jurisprudence of Justice Scalia: A Critical Appraisal , 22 U. Haw. L. Rev. 385, 385 (2000). See also , Miranda McGowan, Do as I Do , Not as I Say: An Empirical Investigation of Justice Scalia’s Ordinary Meaning Method of Statutory Interpretation , 78 Miss. L.J. 129, 150 (2008). C Speech Preventing There can be no doubt as to the centrality of the First Amendment to United States’ democracy: “Speech is an essential mechanism of democracy, for it is the means to hold officials accountable to the