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Open access

Marcin Mazur

Abstract

The author of the article discusses the subject of terminology in the field of cartographic methodology. The general purpose is to propose an internally consistent system of concepts which allows classification of cartographic presentation methods based on unambiguous criteria. For this purpose, in the article the concept of presentation method and the concept of presentation form were differentiated, the cartographic presentation method was divided into stages, and possible data transformation and visualization aspects during application of a method were specified. Then, review of the previous classifications of cartographic presentation methods was conducted which allows differentiation of two fundamental approaches to classification and comparison of the applied criteria. On this basis, the author’s classification of cartographic presentation methods was suggested in which three qualitative and four quantitative methods were differentiated. It constitutes a compromise between accepting unambiguous criteria and the possibility to differentiate methods fixed in cartographic convention.

Open access

Martyna Sosnowska and Izabela Karsznia

Abstract

Geographic information systems (GIS) and their tools support the process of real estate trading. Of key importance is the ability to visualise information about real estate in the form of maps of average real estate transaction prices. The following study presents a methodology for mapping average real estate transaction prices using GIS. The map development process comprised three main stages. In the first stage, the input data was processed and statistically analysed. Official data came from the Register of Real Estate Prices and Values, and open data from the National Register of Boundaries. The second stage involved the visualization of the data in the form of maps of average apartment prices using the cartographic methods of choropleth maps and diagrams. The commercial tool ArcMap 10.3 and the free Quantum GIS software were used in the design of the maps of average real estate transaction prices, to check the options for using these types of programs. As a result, eight maps were designed presenting the average transaction prices for residential properties in the Warsaw district of Ursynów in 2015. The final stage was the analysis of the designed maps. The influence of the selection of the reference units on the visualization content, and the impact of combining cartographic presentation methods on the complexity of the presentation of real estate information, were also analysed.

Open access

Anna Osowska and Dariusz Przybytek

Abstract

The Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland), printed in Vienna in 1916, was elaborated due to remind the world about Poland and the Polish issue. At that time Poland had been partitioned for over 120 years and it was very important to provide comprehensive information about historical Polish territory and its inhabitants before the end of the ongoing war. It was a significant decision because the atlas appeared to be crucial to establishing borders of the Second Polish Republic at the Paris Peace Conference. In 2016 the hundredth anniversary of first edition of atlas is a great occasion for a historical and methodical brief outline.

The atlas was the fundamental work of Eugeniusz Romer, a distinguished geographer, cartographer and geo-politician. All of the 65 maps and 5 diagrams were elaborated by himself and his collaborators: W. Semkowicz, J. Nowak, W. Szafer, S. Weigner, J. Rutkowski, K. Nitsch, B. Chodkiewicz. It includes maps showing physiograpy, administrative division, history of the Polish territory, population, nationality, religion, agriculture, industry and transport, developed on the basis of official data sources. It is noteworthy that E. Romer introduced the isarithmic method on a large scale to present both population and socio-economic phenomena.

As an all-embracing work, Atlas played a major role in drawing the boundaries of the reborn Poland in post-war Europe. This also shows that thematic cartography has been an essential instrument in argumentation for the national interest of Poland.

Open access

Jakub Kuna

Abstract

The aim of the author of this article is to present cartographic visualizations designed for an international tourist project Shtetl Routes. The methodology consists of the study of early topographic maps, field studies, GIS analyses and 3D modelling. 63 town maps, 15 virtual mock-ups and a large thematic map have been developed as results. Multiple methodological problems are discussed. Cartographic products designed for the project have already been published or will be published in the near future.

Open access

Wiesława Żyszkowska

/Gauthier- Villars, 431 pp. Blades M., Spencer C., 1986, The implication of psychological theory and methodology for cognitive cartography. “Cartography” Vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1-13. Board Ch., 1973, Cartographic communication and standardization. “Intern. Yearb. of Cartogr.” Vol. 13, pp. 229-336. Board Ch., 1978, The geographer’s contribution to evaluating maps as vehicles for communicating information. “Intern. Yearb. of Cartogr.” Vol. 18, pp. 46-59. Bolzman J., 1981, Aspekte kartographischen Zeichenwahrnehmung. Eine

Open access

Katarzyna Lisek and Kamil Nieścioruk

Abstract

The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.

Open access

Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Jacek Pasławski

Abstract

The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin – the first choropleth map – provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.

Open access

Dominika Chądzyńska and Dariusz Gotlib

Abstract

Advanced terrain models are currently commonly used in many video/computers games. Professional GIS technologies, existing spatial datasets and cartographic methodology are more widely used in their development. This allows for achieving a realistic model of the world. On the other hand, the so-called game engines have very high capability of spatial data visualization. Preparing terrain models for the purpose of video games requires knowledge and experience of GIS specialists and cartographers, although it is also accessible for non-professionals. The authors point out commonness and variety of use of terrain models in video games and the existence of a series of ready, advanced tools and procedures of terrain model creating. Finally the authors describe the experiment of performing the process of data modeling for “Condor Soar Simulator”.

Open access

Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa

Abstract

The author discuss effectiveness of cartographic presentations. The article includes opinions of cartographers regarding effectiveness, readability and efficiency of a map. It reminds the principles of map graphic design in order to verify them using examples of small-scale thematic maps.

The following questions have been asked: Is the map effective? Why is the map effective? How do cartographic presentation methods affect effectiveness of the cartographic message? What else can influence effectiveness of a map?

Each graphic presentation should be effective, as its purpose is to complete written word, draw the recipients’ attention, make text more readable, expose the most important information. Such a significant role of graphics results in the fact that graphic presentations (maps, diagrams) require proper preparation.

Users need to have a chance to understand the graphics language in order to draw correct conclusions about the presented phenomenon. Graphics should demonstrate the most important elements, some tendencies, and directions of changes. It should generalize and present a given subject from a slightly different perspective.

There are numerous examples of well-edited and poorly edited small-scale thematic maps. They include maps, which are impossible to interpret correctly. They are burdened with methodological defects and they cannot fulfill their task.

Cartography practice indicates that the principles related to graphic design of cartographic presentation are frequently omitted during the process of developing small-scale thematic maps used – among others – in the press and on the Internet. The purpose of such presentations is to quickly interpret them. On such maps editors’ problems with the selection of an appropriate symbol and graphic variable (fig. 1A, 9B) are visible. Sometimes they use symbols which are not sufficiently distinguishable nor demonstrative (fig. 11), it does not increase their readability. Sometime authors try too hard to reflect presented phenomenon and therefore the map becomes more difficult to interpret (fig. 4A,B). The lack of graphic sense resulting in the lack of graphic balance and aesthetics constitutes a weak point of numerous cartographic presentations (fig. 13).

Effectiveness of cartographic presentations consists of knowledge and skills of the map editor, as well as the recipients’ perception capabilities and their readiness to read and interpret maps. The qualifications of the map editor should include methodological qualifications supported by the knowledge of the principles for cartographic symbol design, as well as relevant technical qualifications, which allow to properly use the tools to edit a map. Maps facilitate the understanding of texts they accompany and they present relationships between phenomenon better than texts, appealing to the senses.