References Ambrose S.H. 1993 I sotopic analysis of paleodiets: methodological aspects and interpretative considerations. In: M.K. Sandford (Ed.) Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue, 59-130. Philadelphia. Ambrose S.H., DeNiro M.J. 1986 R econstruction of African human diet using bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope rations. Nature 319: 321-324. Bednarek R., Jankowski M. 2014 Charakterystyka gleboznawcza materiału budującego nasyp kurhanu 1 w Pidlisiwce. In: A. Kośko, M. Potupczyk, S. Razumow (Eds
Tomasz Goslar, Michał Jankowski, Aleksander Kośko, Maria Lityńska-Zając, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz
The Technological Study of Archaeological Ceramics through Paste Analysis
Daniel Albero Santacreu
The author of the article discusses the subject of terminology in the field of cartographic methodology. The general purpose is to propose an internally consistent system of concepts which allows classification of cartographic presentation methods based on unambiguous criteria. For this purpose, in the article the concept of presentation method and the concept of presentation form were differentiated, the cartographic presentation method was divided into stages, and possible data transformation and visualization aspects during application of a method were specified. Then, review of the previous classifications of cartographic presentation methods was conducted which allows differentiation of two fundamental approaches to classification and comparison of the applied criteria. On this basis, the author’s classification of cartographic presentation methods was suggested in which three qualitative and four quantitative methods were differentiated. It constitutes a compromise between accepting unambiguous criteria and the possibility to differentiate methods fixed in cartographic convention.
Martyna Sosnowska and Izabela Karsznia
Geographic information systems (GIS) and their tools support the process of real estate trading. Of key importance is the ability to visualise information about real estate in the form of maps of average real estate transaction prices. The following study presents a methodology for mapping average real estate transaction prices using GIS. The map development process comprised three main stages. In the first stage, the input data was processed and statistically analysed. Official data came from the Register of Real Estate Prices and Values, and open data from the National Register of Boundaries. The second stage involved the visualization of the data in the form of maps of average apartment prices using the cartographic methods of choropleth maps and diagrams. The commercial tool ArcMap 10.3 and the free Quantum GIS software were used in the design of the maps of average real estate transaction prices, to check the options for using these types of programs. As a result, eight maps were designed presenting the average transaction prices for residential properties in the Warsaw district of Ursynów in 2015. The final stage was the analysis of the designed maps. The influence of the selection of the reference units on the visualization content, and the impact of combining cartographic presentation methods on the complexity of the presentation of real estate information, were also analysed.
Christine M. Hassenstab
The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.
Claudia Glatz, Bleda S. Düring, Toby C. Wilkinson, Bernard Gratuze, Richard Jones, Effie Photos-Jones and Victor Klinkenberg
Anna Osowska and Dariusz Przybytek
The Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland), printed in Vienna in 1916, was elaborated due to remind the world about Poland and the Polish issue. At that time Poland had been partitioned for over 120 years and it was very important to provide comprehensive information about historical Polish territory and its inhabitants before the end of the ongoing war. It was a significant decision because the atlas appeared to be crucial to establishing borders of the Second Polish Republic at the Paris Peace Conference. In 2016 the hundredth anniversary of first edition of atlas is a great occasion for a historical and methodical brief outline.
The atlas was the fundamental work of Eugeniusz Romer, a distinguished geographer, cartographer and geo-politician. All of the 65 maps and 5 diagrams were elaborated by himself and his collaborators: W. Semkowicz, J. Nowak, W. Szafer, S. Weigner, J. Rutkowski, K. Nitsch, B. Chodkiewicz. It includes maps showing physiograpy, administrative division, history of the Polish territory, population, nationality, religion, agriculture, industry and transport, developed on the basis of official data sources. It is noteworthy that E. Romer introduced the isarithmic method on a large scale to present both population and socio-economic phenomena.
As an all-embracing work, Atlas played a major role in drawing the boundaries of the reborn Poland in post-war Europe. This also shows that thematic cartography has been an essential instrument in argumentation for the national interest of Poland.