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Sylwia Myszograj, Ewelina Płuciennik-Koropczuk and Anita Jakubaszek

Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in raw wastewater. The research was conducted in four municipal mechanical-biological sewage treatment plants and one industrial sewage treatment plant. The following fractions of COD were determined: non-biodegradable (inert) soluble SI, biodegradable soluble fraction SS, particulate slowly degradable XS and particulate non-biodegradable XI. The methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the ATV-A131 guidelines and Łomotowski-Szpindor methodology. The real concentration of fractions in raw wastewater and the percentage of each fraction in total COD are different from data reported in the literature.

Open access

Tomasz Orczykowski and Andrzej Tiukało

Abstract

Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

Open access

Paweł Malinowski and Piotr Ziembicki

, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2006, pp. 1792-1798. 8. Ward J. H. Jr.: Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function, Journal of the American Statistical Association 58 (1963), pp. 236-244. 9. Dempster A. P., Laird N. M., Rubin D. B.: Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological) 39 (1977), pp. 1-38. 10. Lloyd S. P.: Least square quantization in PCM, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 28 (1982), pp. 129

Open access

Marian Giżejowski and Zbigniew Stachura

Structures , 2 nd Edition, Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures, Pat 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, ECCS, Ernst & Sohn 2016. 11. Stachura Z., Gizejowski M.: Partial factors in modelling of steel structures reliability according to Eurocodes . Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports, Zielona Góra, University of Zielona Góra Press, 16, 1 (2015) 195-207. 12. Tankova T., Marques L., Andrade A., Simoes da Silva L.: A consistent methodology for the out-of-plane buckling resistance of prismatic steel beam-columns . Journal of Constructional Steel

Open access

Ewelina Płuciennik-Koropczuk, Anita Jakubaszek, Sylwia Myszograj and Sylwia Uszakiewicz

Abstract

The paper presents results of studies concerning the designation of COD fraction in the raw, mechanically treated and biologically treated wastewater. The test object was a wastewater treatment plant with the output of over 20,000 PE. The results were compared with data received in the ASM models. During investigation following fractions of COD were determined: dissolved non-biodegradable SI, dissolved easily biodegradable SS, in organic suspension slowly degradable XS and in organic suspension non-biodegradable XI. Methodology for determining the COD fraction was based on the guidelines ATV-A 131. The real percentage of each fraction in total COD in raw wastewater are different from data received in ASM models.

Open access

Pelagia Gawronek and Maria Makuch

Abstract

The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

Open access

Jacek Sztubecki, Adam Bujarkiewicz, Karol Derejczyk and Michał Przytuła

Abstract

The article presents the technology and an analysis of results of engineering structure displacements and deformation measurements. Two measuring technologies using the TDRA65000 laser station from Leica and the FARO Focus M scanner were applied during the tests. Use of the laser station enabled us to define horizontal and vertical displacements of a control network established on the tested facility. Owing to this, it was also possible to transform scanner measuring stations into one integrated unit. The described measurement methodology ensures a high accuracy of scanner station fitting which translates directly into the accuracy of determination of deformations in structural components of a facility. Integration of methods applied in the tests makes it possible to monitor not only displacements of control network points but also the structure as a whole in a uniform coordinate system.

Open access

Marek Pańtak and Bogusław Jarek

Abstract

The paper presents characteristics of the structural system and results of dynamic field tests and numerical parametric analyses of three-span, two-pylon, cable-stayed pedestrian bridge with steel-concrete composite deck and spans of 25.5 + 60.0 + 25.5 m. The footbridge is characterized by increased dynamic susceptibility of the elements of the suspension system observed during the everyday operation of the structure. The analyses have shown that the high amplitude vibrations of the pylon back-stay cables change the parameters of the structural system and consequently change the value of the natural vibration frequencies of the structure. In the paper, the selection methodology of parameters of the computational model which allows to correctly determine the natural vibration frequencies of the footbridge has been presented.

Open access

Ewelina Płuciennik-Koropczuk and Sylwia Myszograj

Abstract

Biodegradability of pollution contained in examined industrial wastewater was assessed according to methodology based on Zahn-Wellens (OECD 302B) test. The following kinds of wastewater were examined: - metal industry wastewater from aluminium pressure foundry; - wastewater from industrial waste treatment processes, such as: filtration waste, chemical reagents, coolants, water emulsions, oil wastes and other industrial wastes, galvanising waste treatment processes sludge. Samples COD value decrease in the subsequent days of the experiment proves that organic substances contained in the examined wastewater undergo gradual biodegradability in aerobic conditions. The highest biodegradability degree of aluminium pressure foundry wastewater equal 65.7% was noted during 28 day of the experiment. However, the minimum biodegradability degree equal 80% after 13 aeration days, which in Zahn-Wellens test allows to determine the examined substance to be biodegradable, has not been achieved. Meanwhile, Zahn-Wellens test conducted for wastewater from industrial waste treatment processes showed that in the day 14 of the process, high (87.1%) organic substance degradation degree, measured with COD value decrease, was achieved. Further aeration of the samples did not increase biodegradability, which equalled 87.9% after 28 days.

Open access

Karolina Cynk

Abstract

In the article was presented results of international researches about environmental consciousness. The project was realized in 2015. The main purpose of this article is to describe the level of environmental knowledge, values and attitudes among university students from Central Eastern Europe. In introduction of article was defined concept of environmental awareness. The research problem is question: What are differences in the state of environmental awareness between respondents living in the Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine? In the first part text was presented methodology of the conducted research. The second part of the article concerns the analysis of the collected data. On the basis of the conducted research it can maintain that the students of Central and Eastern Europe generally declared interest the state of the environment. The overall outcome of the research leads to the conclusion that the highest proportion of the respondents who declared interest in the environmental protection came from Slovakia. The fact that in their opinion it should care about the environment more than the students from Poland and Ukraine may result from the higher level of the environmental awareness.