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Open access

Elena Neverova-Dziopak and Zbigniew Kowalewski

Abstract

Deep analysis of trophic state assessment methods has led to conclusion, that currently there is no universal methodology and existing methods are characterized by significant shortcomings. The approach proposed by the authors is different from generally used. Authors start from the assumption, that trophic state can be reflected by the state of biotic balance, which can be described by the values of Index of Trophic State. Researches were carried out in order to assess the trophic state of running waters and to estimate the limiting role of biogenic substances for eutrophication process development on the base of author's concept founded on above mentioned index.

Open access

Izabela Zimoch and Jolanta Szymik-Gralewska

coagulation and filtration system as a result of reliability analysis and Life Cycle Costing. In: Nowakowski T, Młyńczak M, Jodejko-Pietruczyk A, Werbińska-Wojciechowska S, editors. Safety and Reliability Methodology and Applications. Taylor & Francis Group. 2015:487-496. DOI: 10.1201/b17399-71. [10] Kayid M, Izadkhah S, Alhalees H. Reliability analysis of the proportional mean residual life order. Math Probl Eng. 2014;1-8. DOI: 10.1155/2014/142169. [11] Shafik RA, Mathew J, Pradhan A. Low-cost unified design methodology for secure test and

Open access

Aleksandra Ziemińska-Stolarska, Janusz Adamiec, Mirosław Imbierowicz, Ewa Imbierowicz, Marcin Jaskulski, Aleksander Szmidt and Ireneusz Zbiciński

Abstract

The paper presents methodology of accurate mobile measurements of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll “a” concentration, ammonium ion concentration, conductivity, pH and blue-green algae content in water. The measurements (probe EXO 2, YSI, USA) were made on various depths of probe immersion (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 m) and at different towing speeds of the probe (approx. 5.4 and 9.0 km/h). Static measurements carried out on the same route provided reference values for the measurements in motion to compare the repeatability of static and mobile methods. The tests were also evaluated by observation of probe behavior in motion, e.g. water disturbance intensity, access of light (sun rays) to the sensors. Statistical tests confirmed that the mean values of water quality parameters from mobile measurements with the speed of 5.4 km/h at the depth 1.5 m does not differ from the stationary measurements. Results of statistical analysis prove that water quality parameters can be measured accurately keeping established speed of towing the probe at the fixed depth. Methodology of mobile measurements elaborated in the frame of this work allows to collect vast number of data which can be used to obtain GIS point maps of water quality parameters in large water bodies.

Open access

Ahmed Ramdane, Abdelaziz Lakehal, Ridha Kelaiaia and Salah Saad

Abstract

The approach adopted in this paper focuses on the faults prediction in asynchronous machines. The main goal is to explore interesting information regarding the diagnosis and prediction of electrical machines failures by the use of a Bayesian graphical model. The Bayesian forecasting model developed in this paper provides a posteriori probability for faults in each hierarchical level related to the breakdowns process. It has the advantage that it can give needed information’s for maintenance planning. A real industrial case study is presented in which the maintenance staff expertise has been used to identify the structure of the Bayesian network and completed by the parameters definition of the Bayesian network using historical file data of an induction motor. The robustness of the proposed methodology has also been tested. The results showed that the Bayesian network can be used for safety, reliability and planning applications.

Open access

Dorota Zamorska-Wojdyła, Kazimierz Gaj, Anna Hołtra and Magdalena Sitarska

Quality Evaluation of Biogas and Selected Methods of its Analysis

There were presented technological and ecological aspects of biogas quality evaluation and introduced an overview of the limits of its selected parameters. There were characterized analytical methods for determining the basic composition of biogas, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, condensation, dust, oils, siloxanes, and aggregated content of sulfur, chlorine and fluorine. The result of comparative analysis and literature studies are proposes of the most adequate to the studies of biogas - analytical methodologies.

Open access

Andrzej Studziński and Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik

Abstract

The aim of this study is to assess the risk of failure of group water network in case of raw water contamination. The analysis was based on qualitative simulation performed in hydraulic water network model developed in the EPANET software. It was focused on the quantitative description of the consequences of chemically contaminated water. The methodology of risk assessment relies in determining the consequences of the supply water containing contamination threatening the health and lives of water consumers. The research methodology is as follows: development of a hydraulic model of the water pipeline and it’s hydraulic verification, computer simulations of contamination propagation, calculating the dose delivered to the i-th section of the water supply system supplying water to Ni recipients and the mass of a substance that enters the body li. The simulation results indicate the spread of contamination that after 24 h covered most of the area supplied with water. The load delivered to the resident obtaining water from the i-th section of the water supply network, Li/Ni, was up to 18 g·d-1, at least 15 g·d-1 was received by 34.9% of the population, 10-15 g·d-1 by 12.5% of the residents, 5-10 g·d-1 by 10.7% of the residents, 0-5 g·d-1 by 41.7% of the residents and uncontaminated water was delivered to only 13.3% of the consumers. The dose taken by the statistical consumer (calculated as for adults) l is up to 0.8 g for Li/Ni = 18 g·d-1 and is proportional to Li/Ni.

Open access

Daniel Słyś and Agnieszka Stec

Abstract

Climate change, improper use of water resources, surface waters pollution as well as increase of water requirements are the results of growing population of people in the world. It causes water deficiency in majority of countries in the world, including Poland. Due to the water pollution advanced technologies for its treatment are in demand, what leads to increase of water price. In this connection, there are more often taken actions to reduce water consumption by using rainwater to flush toilets, wash cars, do laundry or water green areas. This publication presents results of Life Cycle Cost analysis of two variants of water supply systems designed for multi-family residential building situated in Rzeszow. In line with LCC methodology the calculations were made throughout the whole life-cycle of the building considering initial investment outlays intended for construction of water supply system as well as operation and maintenance costs. In the first of analyzed variants it was assumed that the system would be fed by municipal water supply network. In the second variant rainwater harvesting system for domestic use was additionally applied. Rainwater stored in the tank would be used in sanitary installation to flush toilets, what leads to lowering the costs of municipal water purchase, reducing fees for rainwater discharge to sewage system and consequently is beneficial for financial standing of the examined building.

Open access

Daniel Słyś, Agnieszka Stec and Martina Zeleňáková

A LCC Analysis of Rainwater Management Variants

The paper presents results of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis carried out for several variants of rainfall water management in a newly designed multi-family dwelling house. According to the LCC methodology, calculations were performed for the whole undertaking life cycle with both investment outlays and operation/maintenance costs taken into account. The LCC analysis was carried out, in particular, for a variant assuming that the rainwater collected from the roof will be entirely discharged to the sewage system. On the other hand, the second variant provided for replacement of traditional building roof with a green one. Facilities of that type, thanks to their retention properties, may delay runoff of rainwater and reduce the overall quantity of water discharged from roof surface and therefore can be classified as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. In the third case considered, rainwater is to be utilised in the building. It was assumed that precipitation water will be stored in a tank and used in the sanitary water supply system for flushing toilets, thus reducing the overall tap water purchase costs.

Open access

Ilona Wrońska and Krystyna Cybulska

Abstract

One of the methods for recovery and utilization of waste products from the poultry industry is to subject them to the methane fermentation process in the biogas plant. These are waste with a high content of fatty compounds and proteins, including keratin. Their specificity is characterized by rapid possibility of spoilage, rancidity and problems of further management. These wastes are characterized by varying degrees of complexity, thus their use as a raw material for the biogas fermenter should be preceded by a pre-treatment. An example of waste generated in poultry processing is biological sludge. Optimizing this material with highly enzymatic fungi could accelerate the degradation of the organic matter contained and, as a result, increase the energy efficiency of this type of waste. Quantitative and qualitative parameters of biogas produced from biological sludge processed by isolated filamentous fungi with high metabolic potential were determined. Laboratory tests were based on the modified methodology included in the standards DIN 38414-S8 and VDI 4630. Based on the results obtained, it was found that the pre-optimization of biological sludge by fungal strains with different metabolic potential, influences on the yield of biogas production, including methane. There was an increase in the biogas yield from the biological sludge processed by the mixed fungal consortium (by 20 %) and the strain marked as F1 (by 14 %) as compared to the non-inoculated material, which was also reflected in the amount of methane produced in the case of the mixed fungal consortium (by 28 %) and the strain marked as F1 (by 12 %).

Open access

Tomasz Szul, Jarosław Knaga and Krzysztof Nęcka

Manage. 2011;31(4):785-792. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.11.021. [14] Poll A.J. Variations in the composition of household collected waste. AEAT/ENV/R/1839, AEA Technology, Harwell, UK. 2004. [15] Purcell M, Magette WL. Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region. Waste Manage. 2009;29(4):1237-1250. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.10.011. [16] Daskalopoulos E, Badr O, Probert SD. Municipal solid waste: a prediction methodology for the generation rate