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Jozef Terek and Ján Dobrovič

Abstract

In studies of individual organisation levels of organisms, the requirement of hollistic expression of structure and function is traditional despite the fact that structural direction prevails in studies. Less attention is paid to the place where function activity occurs in connection with the structure. This place is the surface - the medium where physical, chemical, biological and synergic processes interact. These surfaces are called ecologically active surfaces (EAS). From this standpoint, the surface is a place for energy exchange, which appears as mean studies of function and structural properties of the biological object.

The quantification of these areas taking into account the functional activities - (developed surface, the functional characteristics) to the desktop, or to the volume is the methodological starting point in the assessment of the country, or of its componens after the assessment of the energy potential of the environment. This ratio can be considered as the degree of heterogeneity of the conditions after taking into account the gradient of the environment.

We have achieved partial results related to EAS during the solution of tasks connected with the environmental evaluation of biotic components of a landscape, mainly during the investigation of aquatic biotopes, which are demonstrated on some examples.

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Ekológia (Bratislava)

The Journal of Institute of Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

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Jarosław K. Nowakowski, Jacek Chruściel and Krzysztof Muś

Abstract

Nowakowski J.K., Chruściel J., Muś K.: Does mist-netting provide reliable data to determine the sex and age ratios of migrating birds? A case study involving the Great Tit (Parus major) and the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 173-185 , 2013.

Ringing results of tits caught at two stations on the Polish Baltic coast were used to check if mistnetting could be successfully used to analyse the composition of sex and age classes of migrating birds. Four hypotheses are discussed, describing the distribution of age and sex classes during migration, and the consequences these distributions might have for the catching results. We analysed records of 59 000 Blue Tits and more than 84 000 Great Tits that were caught and we found a similarity in the results of catches at stations 188 km apart, and a higher similarity among catching sites 0.5-16 km apart. These results proved that mist-netting provides reliable data on the sex and age structure of migrating flocks, and that these data can generally be interpreted as representative for at least the area in a radius of more than 10 km. The results also showed a migratory divide through the central part of the Polish Baltic coastline between irruptive Blue Tits in the west and regular partial migrants in the east. Great Tits showed no tendency for irruptions anywhere in the study area. A high correspondence in the age and sex ratio was found for Great Tits and Blue Tits, in particular where both species are regular migrants. We found that the ratios of females and immatures did not differ by more than 1% over many years of study in these areas.

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L’ubica Zaušková

use potential of regional of Slovakia (in Slovak). Bratislava: VUPOP. European landscape convention (2000). Florencia. Hančinský, L. (1977). Forest typology in operating practice (in Slovak). Bratislava: Príroda. Hrnčiarová, T. et al. (1997). The ecological carrying capacity: Methodology and its application on 3 target areas (in Slovak). Part I-IV. Bratislava: MŽP SR, ÚKE SAV. Miština, T. (2006). Externalities in plant production (in Slovak). In G. Blaas (Ed.), Multifunkčnépostavenie a trvalo udržateľný rast poľnohospodárstva a lesníctva (pp. 56

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Jürgen Breuste, Johanna Schnellinger, Salman Qureshi and Anna Faggi

Assessment. Washington: Island Press. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being, Synthesis. London: Island Press. Niemann, E. (1982). Methodology for determining the suitability, performance and capacity of landscape elements and landscape units (in German). Scientific disclosures by the Institute for Geography and Geoecology. Academy of Science of the GDR, Special Issue 2. Nowak, D.J., Rowntree, R.A., McPherson, E.G., Sisinni, S.M., Kerkmann, E.R. & Stevens J.C. (1996). Measuring and

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Florin Žigrai

in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis. Landsc. Ecol., 17, 355-365. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020561630963. Žigrai, F. (2001). Position, meaning and tasks of meta-landscape ecology (Some theoretical and methodological notes). Ekológia (Bratislava) (Bratislava), 20(Suppl. 3), 11−22. Žigrai, F. (2002). Paradigm as scientifically relevant notion for the prognosis of the development of landscape ecology (in Slovak). Acta Environmentalica UC (Bratislava), 11, 73−85. Žigrai, F. (2009). Some remarks to theoretical and meta

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Florin Žigrai

method for robust corridors. In J. Wu & R. Hobbs (Eds.), Key Topics in Landscape Ecology (pp. 227-245). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Žigrai, F. (2001). Long-term ecological research sites in time-spatial context. (Some theoretical and methodological notes to transformation, allocation and networking of long-term ecological research sites). Ekológia (Bratislava) , 20(Suppl. 2), 15-24. Žigrai, F. (2002). “Paradigm” as a scientifically relevant notion for forecasting the development of landscape ecology (in Slovak). Acta

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František Murgaš and Michal Klobučník

References Andráško, I. (2013). Quality of life: an introduction to the concept . Brno: Masarykova univerzita. Angelovič, M. (2013). Spokojnosť s miestom ako indikátor kvality života v prihraničných obciach slovenskoukrajinskej hranice. In Kvalita života 2013 , sborník příspěvků z mezinárodní konference 4.−5.12.2013 v Liberci , (pp. 8−17). Liberec: Technická univerzita v Liberci. Angelovič, M. & Ištok R. (2016). How to assess quality of life. Theoretical and methodological research aspects in cross-boirder regions. Bulletin of Geography

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Olaf Bastian, Gerd Lupp, Ralf-Uwe Syrbe and Reimund Steinhäußer

. Haines-Young, R.H. & Potschin M.B. (2009). Methodologies for defining and assessing ecosystem services. Final Report . Nottingham: University of Nottingham. Herz, K. (1973). Beitrag zur Theorie der landschaftsanalytischen Masstabsbereiche. P etermanns Geogr. Mitt ., 117, 91-96. Hunziker, M. (2000). Einstellung der Bevölkerung zu möglichen Landschaftsentwicklungen in den Alpen . Birmensdorf: Eidgenossische Forschungsanstalt WSL. LfULG (Sachsisches Landesamt fur Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie) (2007). Bodenatlas des

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Ioana Delia Miftode

Prut River. Water Resources, 43(1), 42-47. Costache, A., Comănescu, L., Nedelea, A. (2017). Assessing Perception of Floods within the Framework of VULMIN Project: Methodological Remarks. Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste, Geographical Series, 17(2), 145-151. doi: 10.1515/avutgs-2017-0013. Diaconu, D.C., Andronache, I., Ahammer, H., Ciobotaru, A.M., Zelenakova, M., Dinescu, R., Pozdnyakov, A.V., Chupikova, S.A. (2017). Fractal drainage model - a new approach to determinate the complexity of watershed. Acta Montanistica Slovaca