lphen J.V., A erts J.C.J.H. 2009. Flood maps in Europe – methods, availability and use. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science. No 9 p. 289–301. O uma Y.O., T ateishi R. 2014. Urban flood vulnerability and risk mapping using integrated multi-parametric AHP and GIS: Methodological overview and case study assessment. Water. Vol. 6. Iss. 6 p. 1515–1545. R eese S., R amsay D. 2010. RiskScape: Flood fragility methodology. Wellington, New Zealand. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research pp. 42. Sistela 2012. Nekilnojamojo turto
Irena Kriščiukaitienė, Tomas Baležentis, Aistė Galnaitytė and Virginia Namiotko
obliczeń w programowaniu rozwoju melioracji wodnych. Aspekty rzeczowo-kosztowe [The methodological basis for calculations in programming of the land reclamation development. Material and cost aspects]. Woda-Środowisko-Obszary Wiejskie. Rozprawy naukowe i monografie. Nr 41. Falenty. Wydaw. ITP. ISBN 978-83-65426-00-0 pp. 105. K aca E. 2015b. Średnio-i długookresowe programy rozwoju melioracji wodnych w skali kraju i województw [Average- and long-term programmes of the development of drainage and irrigation on the national and provincial scale]. Falenty. Wydaw. ITP
Chemss Eddine Bouhadeb, Mohamed Redha Menani, Hamza Bouguerra and Oussama Derdous
This study aims to estimating annual soil erosion rate and its spatial distribution in the Bou Namoussa water-shed located in the North-East of Algeria by applying the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) within a Geographical Information System environment (GIS). The application of the RUSLE model in different natural environments and on every scale takes into account five key factors namely: the rainfall erosivity, the soil erodibility, the steepness and length of slopes, the vegetation cover and the conservation support practices. Each of these factors was generated in GIS as a raster layer, their combination, resulted in the development of a soil loss map indicating an average erosion rate of 7.8 t·ha−1·y−1. The obtained soil loss map was classified into four erosion severity classes; low, moderate, high and very high severity representing respectively 40, 30.48, 22.59 and 6.89% of the total surface. The areas, showing moderate, high and very high erosion rates which represent more than half of the basin area were found generally located in regions having high erodibility soils, steep slopes and low vegetation cover. These areas should be considered as priorities in future erosion control programs in order to decrease the siltation rate in the Cheffia reservoir.
Emilia Janeczko, Dorota Kargul-Plewa, Łukasz Kwaśny and Joanna Budnicka-Kosior
. ISBN 9788375832990 pp. 206. KOWALCZYK A. 1992. Metodologia i metodyka badań percepcji krajobrazu z punktu widzenia potrzeb turystyczno- wypoczynkowych. W: Metody oceny środowiska przyrodniczego [Methodology and research methods of landscape perception from the point of view of tourism and recreation. In: Environmental assessment methods]. Gea 2. Warszawa - Płock - Murzynowo. Wydaw. WGiSR UW p. 25-34. MARKIEWICZ I.A., SZUŻMOW A.A. 1992. Metodika estetičeskoj ocenki elementarnych krajobrazov pri dviženii po maršrutam [Methodology of
Fouzia Boudjemline and Ahcene Semar
REFERENCES B abaev A.G. 1985. Methodological principals of desertification processes assessment and mapping. Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Desert Research Institute, Ashgabat pp. 72. B asso B., D e S imone L., C ammarano D., M artin E.C, M argiotta S., G race P.R., Y eh M.L., C hou T.Y. 2012. Evaluating responses to land degradation mitigation measures in Southern Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research. Vol. 6 p. 367–380. B ouguerra H., B ouanani A., K hanchoul K., D erdous O., T achi S.E. 2017. Mapping erosion prone
Mohamed Gliz, Boualem Remini, Djamel Anteur and Mohammed Makhlouf
Located in the north west of Algeria, the watershed of Wadi El Hammam is threatened by water erosion that has resulted the silting of reservoirs at cascade: Ouizert, Bouhanifia and Fergoug. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology using remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) to map the zones presenting sensibility of water erosion in this watershed. It aims to produce a sensibility map that can be used as a reference document for planners. The methodology presented consists of three factors that control erosion: the slope, the friability material and the land use, which were integrated into a GIS. The derived erosion sensibility map shows three areas of vulnerability to water erosion: low, medium and high. The area of high vulnerability corresponds to sub-basin of Fergoug.
Wojciech Pachelski, Agnieszka Zwirowicz-Rutkowska and Anna Michalik
Protection of the environment is an activity of many institutions, organizations and communities from global to regional and local scales. Any activity in this area needs structured database records, using advanced methodology, given, among others, in INSPIRE documents, ISO standards of 19100 series, and national regulations. The goal of this paper is to analyse both the legal provisions related to the air quality and also data sources associated with the prevention of air pollution. Furthermore, the UML application schema of the spatial data related to the air protection is proposed, for the use by urban planners. Also, the overview of the methodology of geographic information is given, including the Unified Modelling Language (UML), as well as the basic concepts of conceptual models within the INSPIRE project. The study is based on the relevant literature and documents, as well as on the expert knowledge gained through urban planning practice, as well as on the analysis of the spatial planning regulations. The UML application schema for different aspects related to the air protection, as presented in this paper, is an example of how to use the methodology also in other fields of the environment protection. Spatial planners know how to improve the air quality, but in the present state of law they often suffer from the lack of planning tools for real actions. In the spatial planners work an important issue are data that allow a thorough analysis of the area.
Andres Sierra-Soler, Jan Adamowski, Zhiming Qi, Hossein Saadat and Santosh Pingale
Satellite remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the land and a spatial context for measuring drought impacts, which have proved to be a valuable source of spatially continuous data with improved information for monitoring vegetation dynamics. Many studies have focused on detecting drought effects over large areas, given the wide availability of low-resolution images. In this study, however, the objective was to focus on a smaller area (1085 km2) using Landsat ETM+ images (multispectral resolution of 30 m and 15 m panchromatic), and to process very accurate Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classification to determine with great precision the effects of drought in specific classes. The study area was the Tortugas-Tepezata sub watershed (Moctezuma River), located in the state of Hidalgo in central Mexico. The LULC classification was processed using a new method based on available ancillary information plus analysis of three single date satellite images. The newly developed LULC methodology developed produced overall accuracies ranging from 87.88% to 92.42%. Spectral indices for vegetation and soil/vegetation moisture were used to detect anomalies in vegetation development caused by drought; furthermore, the area of water bodies was measured and compared to detect changes in water availability for irrigated crops. The proposed methodology has the potential to be used as a tool to identify, in detail, the effects of drought in rainfed agricultural lands in developing regions, and it can also be used as a mechanism to prevent and provide relief in the event of droughts.
Dwi Priyantoro and Lily Montarcih Limantara
This study intends to analyse the suitable hydrograph in upstream Brantas sub watershed. The methodology consists of comparing the result of hydrograph due to the methods of Nakayasu synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH), Limantara synthetic unit hydrograph, and the observed unit hydrograph. In detail, this study intends to know the difference of hydrograph parameters: α and Tg as recommended by Nakayasu and in the study location; to know the influence of main river length which is used in the methods of Nakayasu and Limantara to the time of concentration; to know the hydrograph ordinate deviation between Nakayasu and Limantara due to the observed hydrograph. Result is hoped for recommending the suitable hydrograph in upstream Brantas subwatershed so that it can be used accurately for the further design of water resources structure.
Hydrological modelling and processes using modern hydrological models like SCS Curve Number, HCS, HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Package-Fortran) and kinematic wave models are widely used nowadays in various researches. But using these modelling in drawing the attention of urban planners for challenges and multiple interactions in heterogeneous urban catchments and water systems is still a shortcoming in water sensitive, planning principle. The art of urban planning and technical implementation using behavioural changes in water responses to urban catchments is the need of present urban planning. The complexities of effects and behavioural changes in the water system or urban catchments and incomplete knowledge of these interactions result in failures of sustainable urban developments. Urban planning needs water sensitive methodology to synchronize soil, water and land cover operational with the population over it. The paper reviews the water sensitive urban planning considering the role of soil in urban planning for water and lands correlations, with the purpose of identifying current limitations and opportunities for future urban planning.
Data availability and simplified methods are still a strong limitation for urban planners. Therefore, urban hydrology is often simplified either as a study of surface runoff over impervious surfaces or hydraulics of piped systems. Hence the paper provides approach and universal solution to forecast the behaviour of urban catchment for urbanization in terms of natural land-water cycles and its application in planning existing or new urban catchments. The methodology consists of observing Urban watershed catchment areas with different soil groups and built-up induction over them. A detailed study of water levels in hydrological wells and runoff pattern for the period of 40 years have provided a linear correlation of soil, roughness, land cover, infiltration, ground water and built upon the basis of soil behaviours. These correlations conclude to make regression equations as the blueprint for future urban planning norms to be followed by the planners, engineers, and hydrologists for planning.