[online]. European Environment Agency [cited 10.09.2018]. ISBN 978-92-9213-711-3 ISSN 1725-2237 https://doi.org/10.2800/69420 5. Zaleckis, K., Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė, I., Vitkuvienė J., Tranavičiūtė, B., Doğan, H. A., Grunskis, T., Sinkienė, J. Integrated socio-spatial analysis of Soviet era modernist urbanization and its consequences in Lithuanian cities: methodological outline. Architecture and Urban Planning, 2017, Vol. 13, pp. 79–84, https://doi.org/10.1515/aup-2017-0011 6. Sinkienė, J. Sumanus miestas ir regionas, Sumanioji socialinė
Jolita Sinkienė, Huriye Armağan Doğan, Kęstutis Zaleckis, Jurga Vitkuvienė, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė Vileniškė, Brigita Tranavičiūtė and Tomas Grunskis
Kęstutis Zaleckis, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė, Jurga Vitkuvienė, Brigita Tranavičiūtė, Huriye Armağan Doğan, Tomas Grunskis and Jolita Sinkienė
. Architecture and design , 2016, pp. 6–9. 10. Zaleckis, K., Matijošaitienė, I. Hidden urban revolution in Kaunas downtown area : 1935-1988-2011. In: the proceedings of The eight international space syntax symposium, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile , 2012, pp. 1–16. 11. Zaleckis, K., Matijošaitienė, I. Space syntax analysis of Kaunas : some methodological aspects. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2013, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 29–34. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.sace.1.2.2791 12. Zaleckis, K., Matijošaitienė, I
Franco Pigozzi, Silvia Portas, Francesca Maltinti and Mauro Coni
with the falling weight deflectometer used as benchmarking tool. Pretoria, ZA, s.n. Horak, E., 2008. Benchmarking the structural condition of flexible pavements with deflection bowl parameters. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 50(2), pp. 2-9. Horak, E., 2009. Evaluation of airport pavements with FWD deflection bowl parameter benchmarking methodology. Amsterdam, s.n. Paine, D., 1998. The incorporation of structural data in a pavement management system. s.l., 4th International Conference on
Regionalism as a research subject in the built environment indicates notable complexity. This subject is complex by facing multi layered disciplines, it is questioned in time and it has a plural structure, ontological, intellectual and emotional. Presuming that regionalism concepts specifically in architecture are not much more than conjectures and attitudes assigned to it, the purpose of this study is examination of attitudes in order to correlate them with methodological tools.
Márton Karoliny and László Gáspár
Preservation of the appropriate quality of road assets needs timely rehabilitation of high-level design and construction. Since the actual life cycles of Hungarian road rehabilitation projects are often much lower than expected, research activities of the authors were concentrated on the development of an updated design technology of road pavement rehabilitation using scientifically based algorithms. The paper outlines the elements of a pavement rehabilitation design based on Hungarian and foreign literature survey, detailed own laboratory test series and trial section monitoring. The main steps of the design methodology comprise the Client’s data supply and disposition, site condition evaluation by the designer, deflection measurement in carefully selected points, eventual additional laboratory tests, choosing design subsections, correction of the equivalent thickness of the new asphalt layer, calculation of strain in wearing course. Besides, relationships are presented between various condition parameter data like bearing capacity values, unevenness measuring data and rut depth values. The pavement rehabilitation design technique suggested here – if widely in Hungary – can significantly contribute to attaining a much longer life cycle of rehabilitated roads than by now, and it is (would be) extremely efficient due to the very limited funds available for highway purposes.
Paola Dalla Valle and Nick Thom
This paper presents the results of a review on variability of key pavement design input variables (asphalt modulus and thickness, subgrade modulus) and assesses effects on pavement performance (fatigue and deformation life). Variability is described by statistical terms such as mean and standard deviation and by its probability density distribution.
The subject of reliability in pavement design has pushed many highway organisations around the world to review their design methodologies, mainly empirical, to move towards mechanistic-empirical analysis and design which provide the tools for the designer to evaluate the effect of variations in materials on pavement performance. This research has reinforced this need for understanding how the variability of design parameters affects the pavement performance.
This study has only considered flexible pavements. The sites considered for the analysis, all in the UK (including Northern Ireland), were mainly motorways or major trunk roads. Pavement survey data analysed were for Lane 1, the most heavily trafficked lane. Sections 1km long were considered wherever possible.
Statistical characterisation of the variation of layer thickness, asphalt stiffness and subgrade stiffness is addressed. A sensitivity analysis is then carried out to assess which parameter(s) have the greater influence on the pavement life.
The research shows that, combining the effect of all the parameters considered, the maximum range of 15th and 85th percentiles (as percentages of the mean) was found to be 64% to 558% for the fatigue life and 94% to 808% for the deformation life.
Matti Lakkala and Janne Pihlajaniemi
Architecture: An Overview. Burlington: Ashgate, 2014. pp. 137–159. 14. Fraser, M. Design Research in Architecture: An Overview. Burlington: Ashgate, 2014. 312 p. ISBN 978-1-4094-6217-0. 15. Archer, B. L. Whatever Became of Design Methodology. Design Studies , 1979, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 17–18. 16. Schön, D. A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books, 1983. 384 p. ISBN 0-465-06874-X. 17. Lucas, R. Research Methods for Architecture. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2016. 200 p. ISBN 978
Mirko Grbić, Dušan Tomanović and Peter Gabrijelčič
Villages with significant artistic and cultural value have been developed throughout centuries of turbulent past of Montenegrin coastal and hinterland area. Today, these settlements represent a valuable source of information and are a common subject of research and inspiration to many architects. Through the example of recently designed development, this research aims to show the methods and advantages of contemporary design in traditional context. The review of the traditional architecture and urban design gives insight into qualitative and functional characteristics of building styles that witness centuries of experience and are therefore considered as sustainable. Methodological reference to the traditional building construction considers all the influencing factors that determine the qualitative and functional advantages of local ways of construction. The aim of the research is to implement the research process and to initiate the revival of traditional settlements in order to regain the significance they used to have, in contrast to the presently failed urban attempts. There is a tendency to give preference of designing in context of traditional architecture, considering the advantage of such constructions.
Jūratė Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė, Ona Samuchovienė and Rokas Radvilavičius
Free standing billboards (FSBs) have a significant negative visual impact on landscape. In majority of foreign countries the construction of FSBs is regulated by various legal instruments, guidelines, and control manuals. In Lithuania the construction of FSBs considering visual impact is poorly regulated by juridical and spatial planning means. Considering this situation methodological guidelines for regulation of FSB construction taking into account their visual impact were created. The guidelines are a part of the Landscape Guidelines for the Roads and Railways of National Significance  which is a manual set to fulfil the requirements of the European Landscape Convention  to broaden the knowledge on this subject and to integrate landscape issues into all matters that influence the state and the future of landscape. The aim of the article is to show the possibilities of application of the guidelines by performing visual impact assessment of FSBs in the road landscape near the town of Elektrėnai on one of the main highways of Lithuania: A1 Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaipėda. The proposed stages of FSB visual impact assessment are the following: analysis of landscape spatial structure designating visual spaces perceived from separate road sections; analysis of FSB layout possibilities designating visual spaces protected from FSB construction and visual spaces as FSB construction areas; establishment of possible visual contrast level of FSB, and establishment of FSB location in visual space and visual contrast character according to the Identity Index context (Similarity, Identity, Difference Index) theory and results of evaluation of aesthetic potential of the visual space. In the performed research we used the possibilities of spatial data management and analysis of geographic information systems (GIS) and basically implemented the first three stages of FSB visual impact assessment. The fourth stage was not implemented because it deals mainly with technical issues of FSBs. We tried to solve questions that are most important on the level of spatial planning when developing special plans for FSB construction.
Kęstutis Zaleckis, Jurga Vitkuvienė, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė-Vileniškė, Brigita Tranavičiūtė, Huriye Armağan Doğan, Jolita Sinkienė and Tomas Grunskis
R eferences 1. Berelson, B. Content Analysis in Communication Research . Glencoe, III.: The Free Press, 1952. 220 p. 2. Prasad, B.D. Content Analysis. A Method in Social Science Research, 2018 [online, cited 05.06.2018]. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?-doi=10.1.1.627.2918&rep=rep1&type=pdf 3. Ownby, T. Critical Visual Methodology: photographs and narrative text as a visual autoethnography. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies , 2013, Special Issue – January [online, cited 05.06.2018]. https