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Tomasz Kamusella

. When an Arab professional (for instance, an engineer or a medical doctor), instead of switching to English or French, discusses a technical issue, he (almost invariably a male) infuses the local vernacular with foreign words, usually drawn from French in Algeria or from English in Qatar. Anonymous Reader 1 rightly points out that this example is simplistic and some readers could even see it as “abusive.” Obviously, there are many female professionals (or women with university-level education) in Arab countries. However, there are disproportionately more male

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Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff

) strength (limited to high); the nature (formal vs. informal) and type of intervention instruments (legislation, financial and communication instruments); preference in intra- and extra-state coordination mechanisms (hierarchical, market, communitarian) and finally the role and attitude of civil servants within government and towards society. These will return in our discussion in the next sections. To this point, the concepts of civil service and the civil service system have been used indiscriminately. Within English-language research in public administration