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Electro-acupuncture on Nei Guan and Bai Hui: How Does It Affect GRP78 and Caspase-12 Gene Expression in Rats with Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

References 1 Uznetsov G,Chen L B,Nigam S K . Multiple molecular chaperones complex with misfolded large oligomeric glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biol Chem,1997,272(5):3057-3063. 2 Li-Ying GUAN, Cai-Min XU, Hua-Zhen PAN. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics,2007,34(11):1136-1141. 3 Shibata M,Hattofi H,Sasaki T, et al.Activation of caspase-1 2 by endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

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Vitamin D in Critically Ill Patients - From Molecular Damage Interactions to Clinical Outcomes Benefits. When, Why, How?


Vitamin D - „the sunshine vitamin” is essential for the good functioning of the human body. The most important forms of the vitamin D are the vitamin D2 and the vitamin D3, both biologically inactived. Vitamin D can come from: diet or nutritiv suplimentts and skin. The activation of vitamin D is effect in two steps to the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. The biological actions of Vitamin D involve regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level and are mediated through binding to a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR). Vitamin D has multiple roles: hormonale/ nonhormonale, skeletale/nonscheletale, genomice/nongenomice. Interesting is inversely corelation between Vitamin D and total body fat (BMI) and correlation between Vitamin D and cognitive impairment, especially Alzheimer Disease or delirium during hospitalisation. The curent recomandations regarding the supplying with Vitamin D are different for regions of the globe, also differ depending on the baseline serum Vitamin D and on the desired effect. So, potential nonskeletal effects occur at levels >30ng/ml, above 50-75ng/ml, serum level who should become the target of the supplementation. The loading dose should be considered perioperatively for rapid effects. In conclusion, Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin. It is a substance with multiple roles in body’s economy, and in recent years there has been an interest in the relation be tween vitamin D deficiency and obesity or cognitive impairment. The majority of the data supports association, not causation, of low vitamin D levels. In other words, much of data does not clearly support the idea that vitamin D supplementation in a patient with low vitamin D levels reduces the risk of these diseases. But, the supplimentation is very easy and no harm might be done.

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Evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii infections and antimicrobial resistance. A review

, Poirel L, Nordmann P. Cephalosporinase over-expression resulting from insertion of ISAba1 in Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Feb; 12(2):123-30. 49. Adams-Haduch JM, Paterson DL, Sidjabat HE, et al. Genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates at a tertiary medical center in Pennsylvania. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(11):3837–3843. 50. Figueiredo S, Poirel L, Papa A, Koulourida V, Nordmann P. Over-expression of the naturally occurring blaOXA-51 gene in Acinetobacter baumannii mediated by

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Understanding Red Blood Cell Rheology in Sepsis and its Role in Clinical Practice. From Biomolecular Aspects to Possible Therapeutic Interventions

, Fulesdi B. Early hemorheological changes in a porcine model of intravenously given E. coli induced fulminant sepsis. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 2015;61:479-496 27. Bateman RM, Jagger JE, Sharpe MD, Ellsworth ML, Mehta S, Ellis CG. Erythrocyte deformability is a nitric oxide-mediated factor in decreased capillary density during sepsis. American Journal of Physiology- Heart and Circulatory Physiolog 2001;280(6):H2848-56 28. Moutzouri AG, Skoutelis AT, Gogos CG, Missirlis YM, Athanassiou GM. Red blood cell deformability in

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The Clinical Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width as a Prognosis Factor and Severity Marker in Sepsis and Septic Shock

;1772(5):580–6. 19. Ghaffari S. Oxidative Stress in the Regulation of Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoiesis. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2008;10(11):1923-1940. 20. Yerer MB, Yapislar H, Aydogan S, Yalcin O, Baskurt O. Lipid peroxidation and deform-ability of red blood cells in experimental sepsis in rats: The protective effects of melatonin. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation. 2004;30(2):77-82 21. Oliveira YPAD, Pontes-De-Carvalho LC, Couto RD, Noronha-Dutra AA. Oxidative stress in sepsis. Possible production of free radicals through an erythrocyte-mediated

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Pharmacological therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome

-analysis. Respirology. 2016 Aug 1;21(6):1026–33. 31. Idell S, Kueppers F, Lippmann M, Rosen H, Niederman M, Fein A. Angiotensin converting enzyme in bronchoalveolar lavage in ARDS. Chest. 1987 Jan;91(1):52–6. 32. Marshall RP, Gohlke P, Chambers RC, How-ell DC, Bottoms SE, Unger T, et al. Angiotensin II and the fibroproliferative response to acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Jan;286(1):L156–64. 33. Wösten-van Asperen RM, Lutter R, Haitsma JJ, Merkus MP, van Woensel JB, van der Loos CM, et al. ACE mediates ventilator-induced lung injury in rats

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