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Therapeutic Aspects of Catechin and Its Derivatives – An Update

, Bella SA, Yusuf II, Mohammed AO (2016) Contribution of reactive oxygen species to (+)-catechin-mediated bacterial lethality. Chemico-Biological Interaction 258:276-287. 4. Baranowska M, Suliborska K, Chrzanowski W, Kusznierewicz B, Namieśnik J, Bartoszek A (2018) The relationship between standard reduction potentials of catechins and biological activities involved in redox control. Redox Biology 17:355-366. 5. Bhatt LK, Addepalli V (2012) Potentiation of aspirin-induced cerebroprotection by minocycline: a therapeutic approach to attenuate exacerbation of

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Disease perception and coping strategies for stress in Polish patients with various mental disorders

: mediators between disease severity and psychological well-being and quality of life among patients with Crohn’s disease. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2016; 10: 2387–2396. 22. Pużyński S. Choroba psychiczna-problem z definicją oraz miejscem w diagnostyce regulacjach prawnych. Psychiatria Polska. 2007; 41 (3), 299-308. 23. Pyrcak M. Orzekanie oraz wykonywanie detencji psychiatrycznej (art. 94 k.k.) w praktyce sądów rejonowych. Sprawozdanie z przeprowadzonych badań. Czasopismo Prawa Karnego i Nauk Penalnych. 2011; XV, 1, 99-136. 24. Juczyński Z. Ogińska

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Electro-acupuncture on Nei Guan and Bai Hui: How Does It Affect GRP78 and Caspase-12 Gene Expression in Rats with Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

References 1 Uznetsov G,Chen L B,Nigam S K . Multiple molecular chaperones complex with misfolded large oligomeric glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Biol Chem,1997,272(5):3057-3063. 2 Li-Ying GUAN, Cai-Min XU, Hua-Zhen PAN. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics,2007,34(11):1136-1141. 3 Shibata M,Hattofi H,Sasaki T, et al.Activation of caspase-1 2 by endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

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Mechanisms promoting and inhibiting the process of proteasomal degradation of cells

Abstract

Defects in the process of degradation of unneeded cellular proteins underlie many diseases. This article discusses one of the most important systems of removal of abnormal proteins. It describes the process of ubiquitination of proteins for proteasome degradation. It also describes the structure of the 26S and 20S proteasomes and the mechanism of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome proteolytic system is highly specialized and organized. Protease-proteasome 26S is particularly important for proper cell functioning. It recognizes and degrades marked proteins. Inhibition of proteasome pathway leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Efficient degradation of cellular proteins by UPS (the ubiquitin - proteasome system) - is important for signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, response to stress and the activity control of cell receptors.

The development of many diseases has its origin in the dysfunction of the UPS route. This group includes diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, immune-mediated diseases and infectious diseases. Development of effective methods for pharmacological intervention in the functioning of this system has become a great challenge. The use of specific, low molecular-weight proteasome inhibitors and enzymes catalyzing the ubiquitination gives hope for new, targeted therapies.

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“Pulling hair out of the head” - the importance of traumatic family events in the development and maintenance of trichotillomania symptoms - case report

Abstract

Introduction: Trichotillomania is a mental disorder characterized by a repetitive and compulsive hair pulling, classified in ICD-10 to a group of habit and impulse disorders, and in the DSM-5 to the group of obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Aim: The aim of the study is to present on the basis of case study:1). the importance of traumatic family experiences in releasing as well as maintaining the symptoms of Trichotillomania, 2). comprehensive medical care, the application of which has resulted in a beneficial therapeutic effect.

Results: In the described case of 16-year-old patient, Trichotillomania was triggered by traumatic events related to lack of support and family stabilization resulting from parental disputes and grandfather’s death, when she was 11 years old. The subsequent years of her life, in spite of the divorce of her parents and their separate residence, abounded in periods of turbulent quarrels between the parents in which she was involved. Each time this type of incident was associated with the recurrence of behavior associated with Trichotil-lomania, the course of which was more severe with the occurrence of self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

Conclusions: 1. In the described case, traumatic events and pathological relations of the immediate family members were not only thetriggering factor, but also maintaining the Trichotillomania symptoms. 2. In accordance with the guidelines of Trichotillomania Learning Center-Scientific Advisory Board (2008), the use of a comprehensive treatment including both the patient - individual psycho-therapy (especially cognitive-behavioral therapy) and pharmacotherapy, as well as her family (family psychotherapy, family mediation, workshops for parents), brought about positive therapeutic effects.

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Vitamin D in Critically Ill Patients - From Molecular Damage Interactions to Clinical Outcomes Benefits. When, Why, How?

Abstract

Vitamin D - „the sunshine vitamin” is essential for the good functioning of the human body. The most important forms of the vitamin D are the vitamin D2 and the vitamin D3, both biologically inactived. Vitamin D can come from: diet or nutritiv suplimentts and skin. The activation of vitamin D is effect in two steps to the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. The biological actions of Vitamin D involve regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level and are mediated through binding to a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR). Vitamin D has multiple roles: hormonale/ nonhormonale, skeletale/nonscheletale, genomice/nongenomice. Interesting is inversely corelation between Vitamin D and total body fat (BMI) and correlation between Vitamin D and cognitive impairment, especially Alzheimer Disease or delirium during hospitalisation. The curent recomandations regarding the supplying with Vitamin D are different for regions of the globe, also differ depending on the baseline serum Vitamin D and on the desired effect. So, potential nonskeletal effects occur at levels >30ng/ml, above 50-75ng/ml, serum level who should become the target of the supplementation. The loading dose should be considered perioperatively for rapid effects. In conclusion, Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin. It is a substance with multiple roles in body’s economy, and in recent years there has been an interest in the relation be tween vitamin D deficiency and obesity or cognitive impairment. The majority of the data supports association, not causation, of low vitamin D levels. In other words, much of data does not clearly support the idea that vitamin D supplementation in a patient with low vitamin D levels reduces the risk of these diseases. But, the supplimentation is very easy and no harm might be done.

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Evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii infections and antimicrobial resistance. A review

, Poirel L, Nordmann P. Cephalosporinase over-expression resulting from insertion of ISAba1 in Acinetobacter baumannii. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Feb; 12(2):123-30. 49. Adams-Haduch JM, Paterson DL, Sidjabat HE, et al. Genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates at a tertiary medical center in Pennsylvania. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52(11):3837–3843. 50. Figueiredo S, Poirel L, Papa A, Koulourida V, Nordmann P. Over-expression of the naturally occurring blaOXA-51 gene in Acinetobacter baumannii mediated by

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Understanding Red Blood Cell Rheology in Sepsis and its Role in Clinical Practice. From Biomolecular Aspects to Possible Therapeutic Interventions

, Fulesdi B. Early hemorheological changes in a porcine model of intravenously given E. coli induced fulminant sepsis. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 2015;61:479-496 27. Bateman RM, Jagger JE, Sharpe MD, Ellsworth ML, Mehta S, Ellis CG. Erythrocyte deformability is a nitric oxide-mediated factor in decreased capillary density during sepsis. American Journal of Physiology- Heart and Circulatory Physiolog 2001;280(6):H2848-56 28. Moutzouri AG, Skoutelis AT, Gogos CG, Missirlis YM, Athanassiou GM. Red blood cell deformability in

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EASE: Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience

. 2012; 200: 632-636. 20. Nelson B, Thompson A, Yung AR. Not all first-episode psychosis is the same: preliminary evidence of greater basic self-disturbance in schizo-phrenia spectrum cases. Early Interv Psychiatry. 2013; 7(2): 200-204. 21. Škodlar B, Parnas J. Self-disorder and subjective dimensions of suicidality in schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry. 2010; 51: 363-366. 22. Haug E, Melle I, Andreassen OA, Raballo A, Bratlien U, Øie M, et al. The association between anomalous self-experience and suicidality in first-episode schizophrenia seems mediated

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Adriamycin - efficacy and possible adverse effects

.X., Kaplowitz N.: Immune-mediated drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2002; 6: 755-74. 27. Gunawan B.K., Kaplowitz N.: Mechanisms of drug-induced liver disease. Clin Liver Dis 2007; 11: 459-75. 28. Hartleb M.: Polekowe uszkodzenia wątroby. Terapia 2008; 16: 67-74. 29. Ma B., Yeo W., Hui P., Ho W.M., Johnson P.J.: Acute toxicity of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for early breast cancer - a retrospective review of Chinese patients and comparison with an historic Western series. Radiother Oncol 2002; 62: 185-189. 30. Chalasani N

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