Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013). Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp), maturity index (MI), maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5), sigma maturity index (ΣMI), enrichment index (EI) and structure index (SI) decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013) as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014) were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.
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Histopathology of the alimentary canal of Chirruh snowtrout, Scizothorax esocinus (Heckel), naturally infected with the acanthocephalan parasite, Pomphorhynchus kashmiriensis was studied by light microscopy. The proboscis and bulb was found to be deeply penetrated into the host tissues. Macroscopic examination revealed over secretion of mucous and shedding of host tissues at the host parasite interface and white fibrous nodules on the external surface of infected intestine, which was an indication for the presence of parasite. The major changes in parasite induced histopathology were at the site of attachment to the host’s intestine which includes destruction of villi and epithelial linings. Increased cellular infiltrations at the site of attachment may be a consequence of host’s defence involving cell mediated immunity. In the areas of trunk contact with the host tissue, compression/absence of intestinal folds and loss of columnar appearance of epithelial cells were evident.
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders and its continuous global increase is due to factors as population growth, urbanization, aging, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The effect of pinworm infection on the development of hyperglycemia was examined in WBN/K-Lepf (fa/fa) rats, a new model of the obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with pancreatitis. The rats were orally administered Syphacia muris eggs (infected group) and distilled water (control group). Hyperglycemia onset in the infected group was significantly delayed compared to the control group. Neither body weight nor intake of food and water were affected by S. muris infection. This study demonstrated that S. muris infection delayed the onset of T2DM in fa/fa rats and suggested that elucidation of the underlying mechanism and relevant pathways in the helminth-mediated protection may lead to the development of a new strategy to prevent diabetes mellitus.
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