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Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

Summary

Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013). Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp), maturity index (MI), maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5), sigma maturity index (ΣMI), enrichment index (EI) and structure index (SI) decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013) as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014) were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

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Modulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in macrophages following Trichinella spiralis infection

. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-42 B ruschi , F., K orenaga , M., W atanabe , N. (2008): Eosinophils and Trichinella infection: toxic for the parasite and the host? Trends Parasitol ., 24(10): 462 – 467. DOI: 10.1016/j.pt.2008.07.001 C hen , X., Y ang , Y., Y ang , J., Z hang , Z., Z hu , X. (2012): RNAi-mediated silencing of paramyosin expression in Trichinella spiralis results in impaired viability of the parasite. PLoS One , 7(11): e49913. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049913 C ui , J., R en , H.J., L iu , R.D., W ang , L., Z hang , Z.F., W ang , Z

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Trichinella spiralis reinfection: changes in cellular and humoral immune response in BALB/c mice

[1] Anthony, R. M., Urban, J. F. Jr., Alem, F., Hamed, H. A., Rozo, C. T., Boucher, J. L., Van Rooijen, N., Gause, W. C. (2006): Memory T(H)2 cells induce alternatively activated macrophages to mediate protection against nematode parasites. Nat. Med., 12(8): 955–960. DOI: 10.1038/nm1415 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1451 [2] Behnke, J. M, Mugambi, J. M., Clifford, S., Iraqi, F. A., Baker, r. L., Gibson, J. P., Wakelin. D. (2006): Genetic variation in resistance to repeated infections with Heligmosomoides polygyrus

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Phagocytosis in Mesocestoides vogae-induced peritoneal monocytes/macrophages via opsonin-dependent or independent pathways

al ., 2007 ). Macrophages are strategically located throughout the body and express a multitude of receptors on their surfaces that detect “non-self” signals which are later eliminated via phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is the process that cells have evolved to internalize large particles such as mineral debris, which they store, or apoptotic cells and pathogens, which they have the capacity to kill and degrade upon activation ( Janeway & Travers, 1994 ). The recognition of phagocytic targets is mediated by specific receptors on phagocytes that either recognize serum

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Pathology induced by Pomporhynchus kashmiriensis (Acanthocephala) in the alimentary canal of naturally infected Chirruh snow trout, Schizothorax esocinus (Heckel)

Abstract

Histopathology of the alimentary canal of Chirruh snowtrout, Scizothorax esocinus (Heckel), naturally infected with the acanthocephalan parasite, Pomphorhynchus kashmiriensis was studied by light microscopy. The proboscis and bulb was found to be deeply penetrated into the host tissues. Macroscopic examination revealed over secretion of mucous and shedding of host tissues at the host parasite interface and white fibrous nodules on the external surface of infected intestine, which was an indication for the presence of parasite. The major changes in parasite induced histopathology were at the site of attachment to the host’s intestine which includes destruction of villi and epithelial linings. Increased cellular infiltrations at the site of attachment may be a consequence of host’s defence involving cell mediated immunity. In the areas of trunk contact with the host tissue, compression/absence of intestinal folds and loss of columnar appearance of epithelial cells were evident.

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Syphacia muris infection delays the onset of hyperglycemia in WBN/Kob-Lepr fa rats, a new type 2 diabetes mellitus model

Summary

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders and its continuous global increase is due to factors as population growth, urbanization, aging, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The effect of pinworm infection on the development of hyperglycemia was examined in WBN/K-Lepf (fa/fa) rats, a new model of the obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with pancreatitis. The rats were orally administered Syphacia muris eggs (infected group) and distilled water (control group). Hyperglycemia onset in the infected group was significantly delayed compared to the control group. Neither body weight nor intake of food and water were affected by S. muris infection. This study demonstrated that S. muris infection delayed the onset of T2DM in fa/fa rats and suggested that elucidation of the underlying mechanism and relevant pathways in the helminth-mediated protection may lead to the development of a new strategy to prevent diabetes mellitus.

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SEM studies on the copulatory apparatus of male Oesophagostomum columbianum

. Helminthological Abstracts, Series B, 49: 327–339 [7] Hogger, C. H., Bird, G. W. (1974): Secondary male sex characteristics of Hoplolaimus galeatus. J. Nematol, 6: 12–16 [8] Kaur, H. (1994): Studies on the functional morphology, histology and histochemisitry of male and female reproductive tracts of some parasitic nematodes. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh [9] Keilley, R. O., Dekker, R. A., Bluemink, J. G. (1973): Ligand mediated osmium binding: its application in

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Lagochilascaris minor: Specific antibodies are related with resistance to experimental infection in A/J strain of mice

): Polyclonal and specific antibodies mediate protective immunity against enteric helminth infection. Cell Host Microbe, 4: 362–373. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2008.08.014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2008.08.014 [8] Nisbet, A. J., Smith, S. K., Armstrong, S., Meikle, L. I., Wildblood, L. A., Beynon, R. J., Matthews, J. B. (2010): Teladorsagia circumcincta: Activation-associated secreted proteins in excretory/secretory products of fourth stage larvae are targets of early IgA responses in infected sheep. Exp. Parasitol., 125: 329–337. DOI: 10.1016/j

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Cranial lesions caused by helminth parasites and morphological traits in the European polecat Mustela putorius

American marten (Martes americana) in winter. J. Mammal., 70: 191–193 http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1381687 [10] DeMarinis, A. M. (1995): Craniometric variability of polecat Mustela putorius L. 1758 from North-Central Italy. Hystrix, 7: 57–68 [11] Goater, C. P., Holmes, J. (1997): Parasite-mediated natural selection. In Clayton, D.H., and Moore, J. (Eds): Host-Parasite Evolution: General Principals and Avian Models. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [12] Górski, P., Zalewski A., Łakomy, M. (2006

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Studies on the male and female copulatory apparatus of Trichuris globulosa (Nematoda, Trichuridae)

., Dekker, R. A., Bluemink, J. G. (1973): Ligand mediated osmium binding: its application in coating biological specimens for SEM. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 45: 254–258 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5320(73)80051-6 [15] Lee, D. L. (1973): Evidence for a sensory function for the copulatory spicules of nematodes. J. Zool., 169(3): 281–285 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1973.tb04557.x [16] Lee, D. L., Atkinson, H. J. (1976): Nematode sense organs. In B. Dawes (Ed.): Advances in Parasitology, 14, Academic Press, London

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