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Men’s Perception of Raped Women: Test of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Hypothesis and the Cuckoldry Hypothesis

Abstract

Rape is a recurrent adaptive problem of female humans and females of a number of non-human animals. Rape has various physiological and reproductive costs to the victim. The costs of rape are furthermore exaggerated by social rejection and blaming of a victim, particularly by men. The negative perception of raped women by men has received little attention from an evolutionary perspective. Across two independent studies, we investigated whether the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (the STD hypothesis, Hypothesis 1) or paternity uncertainty (the cuckoldry hypothesis, Hypothesis 2) influence the negative perception of raped women by men. Raped women received lower attractiveness score than non-raped women, especially in long-term mate attractiveness score. The perceived attractiveness of raped women was not influenced by the presence of experimentally manipulated STD cues on faces of putative rapists. Women raped by three men received lower attractiveness score than women raped by one man. These results provide stronger support for the cuckoldry hypothesis (Hypothesis 2) than for the STD hypothesis (Hypothesis 1). Single men perceived raped women as more attractive than men in a committed relationship (Hypothesis 3), suggesting that the mating opportunities mediate men’s perception of victims of rape. Overall, our results suggest that the risk of cuckoldry underlie the negative perception of victims of rape by men rather than the fear of disease transmission.

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Who will become dominant? Investigating the roles of individual behaviour, body size, and environmental predictability in brown trout fry hierarchies

. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 32(1), 575-580. DOI 10.1080/02705060.2017.1360218. Wengström, N., Wahlqvist, F., Näslund, J., Aldvén, D., Závorka, L., Österling, E.M. & Höjesjö, J. (2016) Do individual activity patterns of brown trout (Salmo trutta) alter the exposure to parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae? Ethology, 122(9), 769-778. DOI 10.1111/eth.1252 Werner, E.E. & Anholt, B.R. (1993) Ecological consequences of the trade-off between growth and mortality rates mediated by foraging activity. American

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Seasonal biodiversity and ecological studies on the epiphytic microalgae communities in polluted and unpolluted aquatic ecosystem at Assiut, Egypt

References Abe, S., Uchida, K., Nagumo, T. & Tanaka, J. (2007) Alterations in the biomass-specific productivity of periphyton assemblages mediated by fish grazing. Freshwater Biology, 52, 1486-1493. Aboellil, A. & Aboellil, A.H. (2012) Colonization Abilities of Microflora to Attach Aquatic Plants. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research, Biological Sciences, 12, 21-27. Abou-Aisha, K.M., Kobbia, I.A., El Abyad, M.S., Shabana, E.F. & Schanz, F. (1997) Seasonal changes in Cystoseira myrica and phosphorus input

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The conceptual structure of evolutionary biology: A framework from phenotypic plasticity

.1098/rstb.2016.0138. Crispo, E. (2007) The Baldwin effect and genetic assimilation: revisiting two mechanisms of evolutionary change mediated by phenotypic plasticity. Evolution, 61, 2469–2479. DeLong, J.P., Forbes, V.E., Galic, N., Gilbert, J.P., Laporte, R.G., Philips, J.S. et al. (2016) How fast is fast? Eco-evolutionary dynamics and rates of change in populations and phenotypes. Ecol. Evol.,6, 573–581. De Witt, T.J., Sih, A. & Wilson, D.S. (1998) Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends Ecol. Evol., 13, 77–81. Ehrenreich, I.M. &Pfennig

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Insights into the impacts of three current environmental problems on Amphibians

0183342. Carey, C. & Alexander, M.A. (2003) Climate change and amphibian declines: is there a link?. Diversity and Distribution, 9, 111-121. Chadwick, E.A, Slater, F.M. & Ormerod, S.J. (2006) Inter- and intra specific differences in climatically mediated phenological change in coexisting Triturus species. Global Change Biology, 12, 1069-1078. Chepesiuk, R. (2009) Missing the dark: health effects of light pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(1), A20-A27. Cinzano, P. (2002) Light poIIution and

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Observations on the consumption and dispersal of Phoenix canariensis drupes by the Grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus)

photographic documentation. nº. Albury, NSW Spennemann DHR. (2018c). Phoenix canariensis seed in scats and ejecta collected at Alma Park, and Walla Walla, NSW. A photographic documentation. nº. Albury, NSW Spennemann DHR. Review of the vertebrate-mediated dispersal of the Date Palm, Phoenix dactylifera. Zool Middle East. 2018d;64. doi: 10.1080/09397140.2018.1514785. Spennemann DHR. (2018e). Washingtonia robusta drupes consumed by the Grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus). A photographic documentation. nº. Albury, NSW

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