Eva Maria Prem, Nadine Praeg, Katrin Hofmann, Andreas Otto Wagner and Paul Illmer
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Angelika Maria Gomolińska, Monika Szczecińska, Jakub Sawicki, Katarzyna Krawczyk and Piotr Szkudlarz
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Yu Qin, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Yiduo Zhang, Xianbo Wu, Swapna Boddu, Binde Luo and Hongying Fan
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Tomoki Hattori, Yang Chen, Shinichi Enoki, Daisuke Igarashi and Shunji Suzuki
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Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood and Mehdi Ghobeitihasab
Human interventions on the Earth’s natural systems are evident even in remote regions of the Antarctic and rain forests deep within the Amazon. In addition to human-induced climate change and habitat destruction, an emerging anthropogenic threat to biodiversity is the drastic species re-distribution (the movement of species from one place to another due to human intervention) at a global scale.
This creates fertile conditions for biological invasions which in turn cause substantial economic and ecological losses. These human-mediated invasions, often referred to as “biological pollution”, are a worldwide problem that is increasing in frequency and magnitude, causing significant damage to the environment, economy and human health. Bioinvasions have strong impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and stability. They are ranked as the second most important threat to biodiversity (after habitat destruction) by the World Conservation Union.
The Ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, is one of the invasive species that naturally lives in the Atlantic coastal waters of North America and South America, but discovered in Azov, Black, Caspian, North, Baltic and Mediterranean (north-eastern part) seas in early 1980s.
It seems that the main factor of its redistribution was the ballast waters of ships. As an alien species, Mnemiopsis leidyi caused many alterations in the Caspian Sea ecosystems. The fact that it feeds on the eggs of native fish Clopeonella spp., has resulted in a significant decline of its population; Clopeonella spp. were the main source of industrial fishing in the Caspian Sea and also the main source of food for precious fish species, the sturgeons, and therefore, their decline has caused a huge economical loss for the area's inhabitants and a significant decline of sturgeon populations.
This species has caused massive ecosystem changes and substantial economic losses in the late 1980s-1990s, and it has been recognized as a problem of main ecological concern for the sustainable development of the region, together with the high level of anthropogenic pressures on the Caspian Sea ecosystems. Some special characteristics of this species, such as adaptation to a wide range of salinity and temperature, high capability of reproduction, hermaphroditism and dissogeny, have led to huge increases of its mass, especially in southern regions of the Caspian Sea, the coastal waters of Iran. In addition, it has become clear that this species does not have any natural predators in the Caspian Sea, and also that it can feed on any organisms smaller than itself in size. Owing to these facts, it is a huge ecological threat for the Caspian Sea ecosystems. The aim of the present paper is to review the biological and ecological impacts of this invasive species on the Caspian Sea ecosystems.
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Calorie restriction is the only intervention proved to prolong both average and maximum lifespan in yeast, worms, fish, rodents and possibly primates. Not only does the regimen prolong life, but it also reduces the incident of numerous age-related diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis or cancer and slows down ageing. Mechanisms by which that is thought to occur have not yet been elucidated, but they probably involve reactive oxygen species signaling, insulin growth factor and transcriptional factors. Here, special emphasis is given to SIRT1 - silent information regulator. There is sound evidence showing that SIRT1 is a key player in mediating physiological response to calorie restriction and that its overexpression is correlated with extended lifespan. The possible mechanism leading to its elevated levels is high NAD/NADH ratio, observed in Sir2 in yeast. SIRT1 increases glucose production, enhances fat mobilization, stimulates angiogenesis, prevents neuronal degeneration and rises insulin sensitivity. Therefore, it seems to be a very beneficial factor activated by such a simple intervention that is calorie restriction.
Martin Gierus, Marc Loesche, Heba Salama, Antje Herrmann and Friedhelm Taube
is the case under grazing, up to now plant tissue has been regarded as passive victim of the degradation process of the rumen microbes. The contribution of plant-mediated proteolytic enzymes contained in ingested fresh forage and its contribution to protein degradation is ignored in current models for ruminant nutrition ( Theodorou et al., 1996 ; Kingston-Smith et al., 2003 ). Assuming that half of ingested plant biomass at grazing consists of intact cells ( Kingston-Smith and Theodorou, 2000 ), which stay viable and are metabolically active during the first hours
Monika Bumbalová, Ivan Takáč, Jela Tvrdoňová and Martin Valach
In the EU new programming period 2014-2020 the Leader approach become part of community-led local development (CLLD). Under Slovak conditions, partnerships, which intend to get the legal status of local action group (LAG), are currently in the process of preparing and formulating their CLLD Strategies. Leader approach is characterised by 7 principles, which should be horizontally presented throughout the implementation process. The multilevel governance presented in the implementation of Leader approach includes the management and implementation of rural development programme, through which the Leader is implemented, as well as, formation of LAGs, as the mediators of the approach at local level. Both levels may have supporting or constraining effects on the application of Leader principles in the Leader delivery. The paper focuses on analysing the differences between theory and practice in the conditions of the Slovak Republic when answering the evaluation question: Are stakeholders in Slovakia ready for community led local development? To answer the question, six LAGs were assessed using the focus group as the assessment tool. Representatives of the national authorities were interviewed in order to complete the picture of the evaluated topic. The study pointed out several shortcomings in basic preconditions allowing smooth application of the CLLD.
This paper examines how Finnish farm women interpret their own position as women on family farms. Following the poststructuralist approach in rural gender studies, the analysis focuses on the meanings which women produce regarding agrarian femininity. For this purpose, interview material on their everyday life stories are compared with the discourses on rural femininities in the Koti magazine, which is published by the most important organization representing farm women in Finland. It is concluded that the positions in which farm women present themselves are in accordance with the discourses on rural femininity produced and mediated by this magazine. Farm women present themselves, and they are expected to be, economically active agents in the post-productivist countryside