of socially and politically relevant traditions and identity which serves to mediate between the everyday lives of individuals (…) and the national and supranational institutions which constrain and enable those lives.’
While in the 19th century heroic, figurative statues were preferred for celebrating national ideas and icons, in the late 20th century a major change can be detected in the artistic comprehension and design of monuments. More and more artists found that traditional monuments ‘may only displace memory’ reducing visitors to simple spectators instead
understanding of landscape. I have nothing against teaching society at large, but I do not believe in the efficiency of such attempts. In my doubts, I am reinforced by the fact that these appeals have not changed at all in at least 50 years, and nothing has changed about the case. What I am going to appeal for here is a different form of education. Two aspects should be considered here:
The education of public authorities and designers in public communication, and
The preparation of echelons of specialists in communication, i.e. moderators, negotiators, and mediators
specific objective. For example, the method Citizen Council targets better cooperation and feedback gathering or Citizen Consultation-hour which is emblematic of several methods combining information, gathering feedback and even better cooperation. Here the focus is on the citizen information aspect, while the other objectives are mostly side effects.
Common sense methods are available for resolving conflicts: Mediation , and for larger groups a Consensus Conference . Here, offline methods are central, due to their higher communication effectiveness and a higher
& T. Kulka’s (2016) research, who suggested a new take for planners and mediators on the process of working with a community, one which emphasises the nuanced relations between various types of knowledge, rather than a dichotomy between professional and local, powerful and powerless.
Another cluster of transformations, mainly functional ones, may be described as repercussions of the burden involved in urban investment projects such as, e.g., the redevelopment of roads and pavements (the case of Piotrkowska St.) and the refurbishment of tenanted dwelling
quality of project, which goes beyond the artistic design itself and provides answers to the actual needs of the public.
After completing a sequence of classes (landscape perception, public communication, integrated design, sociology and environmental psychology) graduates should be able to use simple methods typical of the social sciences during the carrying out of their projects; they should know how to and be able to cooperate with professional social researchers and identify situations in which there is a necessity of professional mediation measures that exceed
to the fore questions of (bodily) practices, performance(s) and human emotions and affects (and the needs related to them) as, for instance, mediators of urban life and renewal or resistance to official representations: the bodies of real people dwelling in the streets can contrast sharply with discursively constructed, schematised and ordered bodies in plans or policy documents (see Photo 3 ).
The “workout zone” – rationalised and planned space with prescribed meaning and ordered ways of consumption (note the schematised bodies on the boards