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At its most basic, the notion of citizenship refers to the rights and obligations conferred to an individual by virtue of their membership in a political community such as the nation-state ( Tilly, 1997 ). It is a mediating concept, in that it mediates relationships between individuals within a state and relationships between individuals and institutions, including the state itself. In this spirit, Tilly (1997) understands citizenship as a kind of tie that binds people to one another within the jurisdiction of a given state, but which also
profound differences between two total institutions created by the state: the reservation system versus Japanese American internment camps. Nevertheless, the overall focus on the relevance of race to matters pertaining to citizenship is convincing. The final chapter on state power offers a breezy account of the role of new computer-mediated technologies in shaping new fora for citizenship discourse and debate along with an account of the new potential these technologies afford the state in surveillance—which has become a more pressing issue in the post-9/11 era.
, pp. 936-950. 10.1080/13621025.2015.1110286 Robertson S 2015 ‘Contractualization, depoliticization and the limits of solidarity: noncitizens in contemporary Australia’ Citizenship Studies 19 8 936 950
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information network and their connections with the market are no longer mediated by trade unions or artisans associations, because their working lives are likely to be based on casual and shortterm employment in global corporations. ‘Facebook’ becomes society for the isolated consumer. However, while they enjoy low personal taxation and easy credit, their wages from casual employment are often insufficient to provide for long-term benefits such as pension. With the financialisation of capitalism and the spread of advanced consumerism, the consumer-citizenship is often