Actors and Actions in Prenups and Capitulaciones Matrimoniales: A Cross-Cultural Study
The investigation of a corpus of American prenuptial agreements and Spanish capitulaciones matrimoniales shows how the popularity of premarital contracts is spreading everywhere. The American and the Spanish documents, juridically diverse in many aspects, embedded in two different legal systems, belong to the genre of contracts and are classified as a type of negotiation/mediation. The lexical and semantic analysis focuses on the specialized terminology used to refer to the human actors and their actions within the documents. The aim is to discover whether and how legal, intercultural and sociological divergences emerge from the textual context. Participants play several roles in the various semantic-pragmatic units constituting the contract, being in turn considered as contracting parties, married couple, notary public, parents, esposos, padres, and otorgantes. Their actions are highlighted by a punctual and proper use of verbal constructions and speech acts, such as asserting, signing, stipulating, agreeing. The study demonstrates how actors and actions do not stand autonomously and separately: they perform and fulfil a specific pragmatic function in a precise legal and cultural context.
, M. T., 2014. HomoKult: A new model in translation. Sage Open, vol. 4, pp.1-13.
AKBARI, A. and SHAHNAZARI, M. T., 2016. Spider-web lattice vs. Iceberg Theory: Which one holds sway over in cultural translation? International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, vol. 2, no. 4, pp.54-72.
ALRED, G. and BYRAM, M., 2002. Becoming an intercultural mediator: A longitudinal study of residence abroad. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 5, pp.339-352.
BUTTJES, D., 1991. Mediating languages
The topicalisation of the social nature of language stems from the idea that to use language is to perform an action. The overriding criterion for evaluating language use in translation is meaningoriented since translators, as privileged language users, display norm-governed behaviour in particular socio-cultural contexts, agency refers to the socio-culturally mediated capacity to act, and praxis is the action itself.
In any migratory context individuals are faced with several challenges as a result of having to live in a different geographical location, function in a different cultural setting and use a different language. The migrants’ use of language plays a crucial role in mediation of their identity, especially in the domain of pronunciation (Kobialka 2016). When non-native users of language adapt their speech to resemble that of the host community, it may suggest their strong identification with the target community (Hammer and Dewaele 2015). This papers focuses on the pronunciation patterns among Polish adult migrants living in the west of Ireland. The aim of the study is to investigate the link between positive attitudes of the migrant community towards Ireland, Irish culture and community, their acculturation strategies and language identity, and the tendency to use one of the most characteristic features of Irish English – slit-t. The theoretical framework includes acculturation theory (Berry 2005), social identity theory (Tajfel and turner 1987) and language identity (Block 2007). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of data indicates a certain correlation between the use of Irish English slit-t and the participants’ strategies of acculturation, identity and attitudes to the host community.
HLT '12 2012 Student Research Workshop, 11-16. Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
Hilpert, Martin and Stefan Gries. 2009. Assessing Frequency Changes in multistage Diachronic Corpora: Applications for Historical Corpus Linguistics and the Study of Language Acquisition. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 24(4), 385-401. doi: 10.1093/llc/fqn012
Hjarvard, Stig. 2008. The Mediatization of Society. A Theory of the Media as Agents of Social and Cultural Change. Nordicom Review, 29(2), 105
Colloquial Arabic in Electronically-Mediated Communication. Unpublished dissertation.
Knaś, Agnieszka. 2010. Review of Carmen Freshener Email - SMS -MMS: The Linguistic Creativity of Asynchronous Discourse in the New Media Age. Language in Society 39 (5). 713-14. doi: 10.1017/S0047404510000813
McClure, Paul. 2016. Faith and Facebook in a Pluralistic Age: The Effect of Social Networking Sites on the Religious Beliefs of Emerging Adults. Sociological Perspectives 59. 818-834. doi: 10.1177/0731121416647361
Miller Brian J
This paper is concerned with fictional communication, as the act of an author in relation to a reader. Fictional discourse exhibits certain complexities that are not observable in other forms of discourse. For example, the author’s act is mediated for the reader by that set of persons called characters. This fact generates a range of relations, firstly the triad of author-reader, author-character, and reader-character. But closer observation reveals that this mediation may be such that it gives way to another, deeper set of relations. At the deepest level one may postulate reader’s relation to author’s self-relating and author’s relation to reader’s self-relating. These questions are explored with view to deriving a revisionist notion of pragmatics that is open to agency
This paper explores, within an ecological perspective on language learning (cf. van Lier 2004), the valuable role that translation as adaptation can play in mediating and making sense of cross-cultural experiences in the multilingual language classroom. The aim is to develop a multilingual pedagogy that includes translation as adaptation as an integral part of the language curriculum in order to foster translingual and transcultural competence, this being the goal of foreign language education in the 21st century (cf. MLA 2007:2). The first part of the paper introduces the theoretical framework that conceptualises translation as being closely related to adaptation. It then analyses salient scenes from Gianni Amelio’s bilingual drama La stella che non c'è/The Missing Star/L'Étoile Imaginaire (2006) filmed in Italy and China and screened in competition as part of the 2006 Venice Film Festival. Moving on from research to pedagogic practice, the final part of the paper outlines a teaching unit that is based on the film and is aimed at undergraduate L1 Chinese learners of Italian and L1 Italian learners of Chinese. The objective of the pedagogic unit is to raise awareness of the transformative power enshrined in linguistic and cultural exchanges mediated by audio-visual translation as an eminent example of adaptation.
This paper reports the results of a pilot study concerned with phonetic imitation in the speech of Polish learners of English. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether native speakers of Polish imitate the length of English vowels and to determine whether the extent of phonetic imitation may be influenced by the model talker being a native or a non-native speaker of English. The participants were asked to perform an auditory naming task in which they indentified objects and actions presented on a set of photos twice, with and without the imitation task. The imitation task was further sub-divided depending on the model talker being a native or non-native speaker of English (a native Southern British English speaker and a native Polish speaker fluent in English). As the aim was to investigate the variability in durational characteristics of English vowels, the series of front vowels /æ e ɪ iː/ were analysed in the shortening and lengthening b_t vs. b_d contexts. The results of the study show that the participants imitated the length of the investigated vowels as a result of exposure to the two model talkers. The data suggest that the degree of imitation was mediated both by linguistic and social factors and that the direction of convergence might have been affected by the participants’ attitude toward L2 pronunciation.
The article focuses on a relatively new genre of computermediated communication, online sports reporting (also known as live text commentary or minute- by-minute match report). This is a hybrid genre which combines a chronologically structured narrative (capturing the events of the sporting match minutebyminute) and the commentator’s evaluative formulations (evaluations which are often expressive and subjective, funny and humorous statements) as well as his implicit contact with the audience (fictitious dialogue). It thus fulfills both the informative function (providing factual information) and the entertainment one (as typical infotainment). The introductory characterization of the genre is based on the work of J. Chovanec, but unlike in his work, it focuses on Czech live text commentary (mainly from soccer, hockey and tennis matches) and on the terms, nonstandard professional vocabulary units and slang expressions in the commentators’ speech. Significant attention has been devoted to these levels of the lexicon in Czech and Slovak linguistics. However, the genre in question once again confirms how difficult it is to distinguish them. For example, the combination of individual expressions (or entire language levels) with standard, “colloquial” or nonstandard Czech appears to be very problematic in this respect.