Der Bezirk als Verwaltungsraum im Großherzogtum Baden zwischen 1809 und den 1870er Jahren
Rüdiger von Krosigk
This article explores the spatial generation and perception of administrative districts. It has a particular focus on how certain administrative practices contributed to diminishing spatial distance between district offices and local society, that is, residents and municipalities, from the early 19th century to the 1870S in the Grand Duchy of Baden. TWO different administrative systems – a centralized one introduced in 1809 and a more participative one dating from 1863/1865 – characterize the period under consideration. With regard to the methodological approach, the understanding of the generation and perception of administrative spaces is informed by cultural, communications, and media studies.
With respect to the spatial generation and perception of the administrative districts, two administrative practices are of particular interest. Firstly, administrative visitations (›Ortsbereisungen‹) were periodically carried out in the villages by the district officers, starting in the early 19th century, to gather information as the basis of a ›close‹ description of the administrative, agricultural, economic, infrastructural, security, welfare and health conditions in the districts for the purpose of administrative reports. Oral communication and immediacy in conducting the administrative visitations contributed in particular to reducing distance between district administrations and local society.
Secondly, the article explores the role of honorary district councillors as middlemen between local society and district administration from the mid-1860s. In their roles as experts, advisors, and mediators – which they also fulfilled in the context of administrative visitations – the honorary district councillors enhanced the proximity of local society to the district administration and in this way contributed to the perception of the district as a rather small space.
-related norms, but it can also manifest itself in subjective efforts, »to mediate between emotional standards and emotional experience«. Peter N. Stearns / Carol Z. Stearns: »Emotionology: Clarifying the History of Emotions and Emotional Standards«, in: The American Historical Review 90 (1985), pp. 813–836, at p. 825.
It can therefore be said that emotions are not only the object of regulation but also have regulatory potential. This draws attention to emotions as a normative resource. This concerns very specific emotions as well as more complex emotional concepts such as
Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad and Paul van Trigt
Blad‹. The regular inspections helped to spread the administrative system of the unitary state into the smallest corners of the province, while allowing the local authorities a degree of involvement in its implementation.
While the years after 1814, and again after 1848, had been characterized by efforts to diffuse the administrative implications of the constitution, by the last decades of the 19th century the unitary state-building process was coming to an end, and nation-building entered a new phase. Local government had come of age, and
abstrakte Arbeitsdefinition abgeleitet:
Emotion is a complex set of interactions among subjective and objective factors, mediated by neural~hormonal systems, which can (a) give rise to affective experiences such as feelings of arousal, pleasure/displeasure; (b) generate cognitive processes such as emotionally relevant perceptual effects, appraisals, labeling processes; (c) activate widespread physiological adjustments to the arousing conditions; and (d) lead to behavior that is often, but not always, expressive, goaldirected, and adaptive. Paul R. Kleinginna / Anne M
›Verwirklichte Unwahrscheinlichkeiten‹ in der Habsburgermonarchie
beobachtete, »den lebendigen Kontakt mit den gesellschaftlich-politischen Kräften der Bevölkerung mehr und mehr verlor.« Redlich, Österreichs Regierung und Verwaltung, S. 153; zur kooperativen Haltung vgl. die Bemerkung von John Boyer, der den Staat der Habsburgermonarchie als »broker and mediator« charakterisiert: John Boyer, »Some Reflections on the Problem of Austria, German, and Mitteleuropa«, in: Central European History 22 (1989), S. 301–315, hier S.311; zum Prinzip der kooperativen Realisierung von Infrastrukturprojekten vgl. Osterkamp, »Wasser, Erde, Imperium«, S