The 2008-2009 global crisis has severely affected the world economy. Most national governments utilized fiscal policy measures including subsidies to reinforce and sustain their economies. In this study we examine the impact of the 2008-2009 global crisis on subsidies paid to manufacturing firms either by their governments or the European Union (i.e. EU). Our results indicate that, overall, a significantly larger proportion of firms had received subsidies after the global crisis. When we look into different subgroups, we find that firm size, female ownership, female management, and quality certification did not matter (more firms in all of these subgroups had received subsidies). On the other hand, our results demonstrate that firm type and top manager’s experience level made a difference in terms of subsidies received after the crisis.
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The Canadian transition to IFRS provides a valuable IFRS learning opportunity. The Canadian transition and implementation of IFRS provides a unique opportunity to examine the conversion of financial reporting from a similar set of financial reporting rules as U.S. GAAP in a similar economic and business environment. The implementation and adoption of IFRS is not a monolithic event. Our ability to comprehensively understand and assess IFRS requires transparent disclosures such as those mandated by IFRS 1 and disaggregation of the equity components to observe and measure the impact of IFRS as it pertains to discretionary management implementation choices, material reclassifications, and GAAP-to-GAAP differences. Comprehensive knowledge of IFRS 1, First Time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards is crucial to our ability to assess the transitory and future impact of IFRS. IFRS 1 sets the precedent for financial reporting under IFRS, overrides transitional provisions included in other IFRS, and prescribes detailed disclosures. This detailed “rules-based” standard permits discretionary management policy choices which have material impact on transitory reporting as well as future financial results.