Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
This proposed research builds upon two (unpublished) soccer-related graffiti maps compiled by Dr. Piotr Trzepacz in 2006 and 2016. He is currently a researcher at the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management (IGSM), Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland and an important facilitator of this project. The original collections of the soccer-related graffiti was conducted on a bicycle, pictures taken by a digital camera, and graffiti locations were manually recorded for subsequent visualization on maps. In contrast, this research applied the
the set of the cities (the entire data table).
For particular rows, the dynamics of development was determined (a study of changes), for columns – the variance of features, whereas the entire table supplied the principal components and was a basis for a multivariate classification (a study of structures).
The arrangement of the computed coefficients of variation (a standardized measure of variance) allowed determining the general trend of changes and comparing the acquired results to the two contrasting, as already mentioned, hypotheses of contemporary
transactions. Second, municipal banks (general) have no owner other than the public, and thus cannot be bought or sold. Third, their objective is to serve all community members, including people living off social welfare. Fourth, their management and supervisory boards include political representation of the municipality council, as well as some members of the local community. Finally, while municipal banks strive to strengthen the region, their financial stability is secured by the meta-regional network. Thus, once they are set, municipal banks offer a stable and safe model
involving local government ( Shaw & Satish 2007 ). However, by the 1980s discourse was shifting, driven by both a reaction to centralizing powers of Indira Gandhi’s Emergency Rule in the 1970s and the advocacy of global agencies such as the World Bank. The economic liberalisation in the early 1990s was part of a package consistent with accepted (neo-liberal) global discourse which also included decentralisation ( Banerjee-Guha 2009 ).
The 74th Constitutional Amendment of 1992 required, amongst many other measures to empower municipal government, the establishment of
top priority. A new law on housing cooperatives was adopted in 1995. In the same year austerity measures were introduced in order to continue the ongoing renovations, which was followed by measuring the size of apartments and compiling a list of heaters. The next year, the responsibilities of the National Housing Directorate ( Kierownictwo Osiedli , in Polish) were further reduced in order to decentralize and to increase the competences of this kind of housing cooperative. In that sense, the members of the Cooperative became more involved in its work and a higher
discussion on the overall conclusions on how the outcome of the study can be utilised. In addition, the limitations of this research are highlighted in the final part.
The literature review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with different types of accessibility in which it is mainly spatial factors that are presented. In addition, several approaches for measuring spatial accessibility are introduced. The second section focuses explicitly on the spatial aspects of library location. It illustrates what methods were used in the past
and other urban contexts.
The paper focuses on the 12 largest UK cities where suburbanisation processes have been shown to be proceeding most clearly at present ( Bailey & Minton 2018 ). It draws on a data from a variety of government sources, relating changes in neighbourhood poverty levels for the period 2004-2016 to variations in air pollution and school quality as measured by educational attainment. We start by justifying the focus on these two outcome measures before detailing data sources and explaining the analytical approach. We then report results before
profit-making process should include the innovations and competitive advantages of the area. The measures undertaken should contribute to restoring profitability and allow for a sufficient return on investment ( Gillen & Lall 1997 ; Jarach 2001 ; Francis, Humphreys & Fry 2002 ; Fernandes & Pacheco 2007 ).
First, Lodz Airport management board should proceed with the development of cargo services and restore the charter traffic branch. These types of air traffic operations worked well in the past for Lublinek. Previously, airport managers were seeking to establish
eye. Representatives of those promoting an ecologically sound environment put pressure on public authorities on behalf of citizens interested in green issues. They press politicians to take particular measures to achieve immediate success in the management of environmental pollution, most notably of smog and its sources. Nevertheless, one may often get the impression that the measure of success is not the restriction of emissions but the use of the climate of fear. The climate serves other interim activities as the springhead for the social advocacy of prime movers
authors and those carrying out such undertakings regarding the consequences of failure to consider and respect climate conditions in the regeneration process. The issues of adapting urban areas to climate change have become important elements of urban policies implemented in many countries. Extreme weather phenomena and their consequences, from serious to catastrophic, force city authorities to adopt a wider perspective in the management of urban areas. That perspective comprises the whole spectrum of urban functional issues, the development of its spatial structure, as