Antonio Paoli, Pasqualina Cancellara, Pierluigi Pompei and Tatiana Moro
influence rates of MPS and MPB and, ultimately, the NPB. It is well known that nutrition influences, per se, both MPS and MPB.
Measuring muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB) Protein Turnover
Physiological and metabolic homeostasis is strictly influenced by the regulation of MPS and MPB. Indeed, 80% of the daily protein synthesis comes from the recycling of amino acids from MBP, while only 20% seem to be induced by protein intake with diet ( Wolfe and Chinkes, 2005 ). Under the post-absorptive condition, MPB is approximately 30% higher
Piotr Kaczka, Małgorzata Magdalena Michalczyk, Rafał Jastrząb, Mateusz Gawelczyk and Katarzyna Kubicka
al. (2019) investigated changes in strength comparing HMB-Ca vs. HMB-FA supplementation in 40 males. After 8-week supplementation, there were no positive effects of both HMB-Ca and HMB-FA formula on strength measures in the 1RM protocol (1RM bench press (kg); 1RM back squat (kg)), nor muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris. Additionally, the same authors, in another 8-week study with resistance training, reported no positive effect of HMB-Ca and HMB-FA on FFM and BF ( Teixeira et al., 2018 ). Slater et al. (2001) performed a similar study
Stephen Harvey, Alexander Gil-Arias, Megan Lorraine Smith and Lindsey Rachel Smith
In physical education, teaching has traditionally been undertaken using a direct instruction pedagogical model. In this model, the teacher is directly responsible for all decisions, which includes the establishment of objectives, lesson management, task presentations, teaching strategies, students’ responsibilities, etc. ( Metzler, 2011 ). This ‘one-size-fits-all’ model has recently been referred to by Kirk (2010) as physical-education-as-sport-techniques where the main aim is to develop ‘technical proficiency’ (Light et al., 2015; Oslin and
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De Bosscher, V., Shibli, S., Westerbeek
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effective methods of controlling anger in sports ( Brunelle et al., 1999 ). Therefore, the current study analyzed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral anger management training for table tennis players. In the following, we focused on the evaluation of training in terms of effectiveness in reducing maladaptive anger in table tennis over time.
Material and Methods
Participants were 18 competitive table tennis players from the Luxembourg national team with no known specific anger problems. Participants were randomly assigned to conditions for