Pascal Krauthausen, Michael Leitner, Alina Ristea and Andrew Curtis
This proposed research builds upon two (unpublished) soccer-related graffiti maps compiled by Dr. Piotr Trzepacz in 2006 and 2016. He is currently a researcher at the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management (IGSM), Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland and an important facilitator of this project. The original collections of the soccer-related graffiti was conducted on a bicycle, pictures taken by a digital camera, and graffiti locations were manually recorded for subsequent visualization on maps. In contrast, this research applied the
the set of the cities (the entire data table).
For particular rows, the dynamics of development was determined (a study of changes), for columns – the variance of features, whereas the entire table supplied the principal components and was a basis for a multivariate classification (a study of structures).
The arrangement of the computed coefficients of variation (a standardized measure of variance) allowed determining the general trend of changes and comparing the acquired results to the two contrasting, as already mentioned, hypotheses of contemporary
transactions. Second, municipal banks (general) have no owner other than the public, and thus cannot be bought or sold. Third, their objective is to serve all community members, including people living off social welfare. Fourth, their management and supervisory boards include political representation of the municipality council, as well as some members of the local community. Finally, while municipal banks strive to strengthen the region, their financial stability is secured by the meta-regional network. Thus, once they are set, municipal banks offer a stable and safe model
involving local government ( Shaw & Satish 2007 ). However, by the 1980s discourse was shifting, driven by both a reaction to centralizing powers of Indira Gandhi’s Emergency Rule in the 1970s and the advocacy of global agencies such as the World Bank. The economic liberalisation in the early 1990s was part of a package consistent with accepted (neo-liberal) global discourse which also included decentralisation ( Banerjee-Guha 2009 ).
The 74th Constitutional Amendment of 1992 required, amongst many other measures to empower municipal government, the establishment of
top priority. A new law on housing cooperatives was adopted in 1995. In the same year austerity measures were introduced in order to continue the ongoing renovations, which was followed by measuring the size of apartments and compiling a list of heaters. The next year, the responsibilities of the National Housing Directorate ( Kierownictwo Osiedli , in Polish) were further reduced in order to decentralize and to increase the competences of this kind of housing cooperative. In that sense, the members of the Cooperative became more involved in its work and a higher
Aleksandra Lewandowska CDFMR and Adam Piasecki CDFMR
purification technologies ( Tortajada, Nam Ong, 2016 ; Salgot, Folch, 2018). The environmental aspects of water and sewage management mainly relate to the quality and parameters of potable water ( Ekiye, Zejiao, 2010 ; Wang et al., 2009 ; Coombes et al., 2016 ), and its impact on the natural environment ( Haase, 2015 ; Herslund et al., 2018 ). The socio-economic aspects of water and sewage management focus on efficiency ( González-Gómez, García-Rubio, 2008 ; Zarghami, 2010 ). They also relate to the development of practical tools for measuring and improving water
Magdalena Bialic-Davendra, Pavel Bednář, Lukáš Danko and Jana Matošková
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Caves, R., 2003: Contracts Between Art and Commerce. In: Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 17, Issue 2, AEA, pp. 73-83. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/089533003765888430
Champion, K., 2010: Hobson’s Choice? Constraints On Accessing Spaces Of Creative Production. In: Creative Industries
, culture can play a role in creating and maintaining the identity of the local community, its creativity, vitality and internal cohesion.
The aim of this article is to assess the potential of the cultural sector in Poland and present its regional diversity. The author selected features referring to infrastructure in terms of culture, activity of the population in the sphere of culture, expenditure on culture and income derived from culture; then, on the basis of these features, a synthetic measure determining the development potential of regions (voivodships) in Poland
i praktyki rewitalizacji. Wydawnictwo FTA, Poznań, 15-25.
Bravo, D. ( 2010). The Flaneurs Surprise, Lessons from the European Prize for Urban Public Space 2000- 2010. In: Favour of Public Space. Ten Years of the European Prize for Urban Public Space , Centre de Cultura Contemporania de Barcelona and ACTAR, Barcelona, 44-47.
Caldera, J. Berrocal, R. (2016). Metodología para la Medición del Déficit Cualitativo de Espacio Público en Colombia: un Indicador Clave del Ordenamiento Territorial (Methodology for Measuring the Qualitative Deficit in Public
Tej, J., Sirková, M. and Ali Taha, V., 2012: Model and results of the quality of life evaluation inregional cities in Slovakia. In: Journal of management and business: research and practice, Vol. 4, No 2, pp. 31-34.
Vennhoven, R., 2000: The four qualities of life - Ordering Concepts and Measures of the Good Life. In: Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, pp. 1-39. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g2406q8u16716q6w/, DoA: 30 July 2011.
Vennhoven, R., 2002: Why Social Policy Needs Subjective Indicators. In: Social Indicators