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Hua Yin, Ling Yang and Qiao Ye

of included studies. Author (date published) Journal Setting Sample Intervention group Control group Outcomes Duration of the study Notes Smith et al. (1999) Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine Adelaide, Australia Patients with principal diagnosis of COPD attending The Queen Elizabeth Hospital ( N =96) Patients received home-based nursing interventions including condition monitor, education, and early identification of exacerbations after leaving the hospital Patients received usual care and education from

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Rui Chen and Yi-Lan Liu

/co-workers, nursing leadership, local/world communities, the environment, and Web-based interactions. 28 The course created for nurse educators at Inova Alexandria Hospital 41 was a noteworthy exception. It not only focused on offering a caring training for nurse educators to help them influence nurses in their wards but also had a continuing caring training last along for 3 years to make sure that affective growth occurred for both clinicians and educators. Implementation included core content in a 30-minute training session, large-scale leadership conferences, and consistent

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Mojca Dobnik, Matjaž Maletič and Brigita Skela-Savič

1 Introduction Occupational stress mostly results from unexpected situations or issues requiring personal engagement and undertaking tasks that do not comply with one’s knowledge, expertise, or expectations, resulting in person’s inability to manage the situation ( 1 ). Surveys conducted among healthcare workers revealed that nursing staff often face various stressors associated with occupational activities, which reduce work efficiency ( 2 ). According to the ANA (American Nurses Association) ( 3 ) stress in healthcare arises from work assignments, job

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AM Alaqeel, H Abou Al-Shaar, RK Shariff and A Albakr

2 (DM2) Expansion in non coding region TDP-43: trans-activation response (TAR) element DNA-binding protein 43; miR: microRNA; HAR1: human accelerated region 1; DGCR5: DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5; FUS/TLS: fused in sarcoma/translocated in sarcoma; TUG1: taurine up-regulated 1; NEAT1: nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1; RAN: repeat-associated non-ATG; UPF3B: UPF3 regulator of nonsense transcripts homolog B; SMN2: survival of motor neuron 2. One of the common molecular events is oxidative stress, which affects protein folding

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Sándor Miklós Szilágyi, Monica Marton Popovici and László Szilágyi

;2:401-407. 37. Wentzel JJ, Chatzizisis YS, Gijsen FJ, et al. Endothelial shear stress in the evolution of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and vascular remodelling: current understanding and remaining questions. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96:234-243. doi: 10.1093/cvr/ cvs217. 38. Chung WB, Hamburg NM, Holbrook M, et al. The brachial artery remodels to maintain local shear stress despite the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:606-612. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.181495. 39. Freidja ML, Toutain B, Caillon A

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Ilona Pokora and Aleksandra Żebrowska

athletes might be better prepared to tolerate thermal strain due to a better defensive adaptation to heat stress ( Periard et al., 2015 ; Tikuisis et al., 2002 ). Circulatory strain The heart rate was selected as the principal variable for detection of physiological strain as it provides an integrated response to energy requirement, thermal stress and posture demand ( Johnson and Park, 1981 ; Kellogg et al., 1993 ; Périard et al., 2010 ; Taylor, 2014 ), moreover, it also reflects interindividual differences. In all our subjects, circulatory strain ( f HR

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Mustafa Resorlu, Davut Doner, Ozan Karatag and Canan Akgun Toprak

and more severe. 4 Another clinical condition frequently encountered together with aging is chondromalacia patella (CP). Vascular insufficiency, patellar variations, trauma, dislocation, fracture, rheumatological diseases and impairment of mechanical stress balance on the joint are implicated in the etiology. 5 The principal changes in cartilage tissue are softening, swelling, fissuring or ulceration. 5 There are several superficially or deeply located bursae in the knee joint, their principal function being to reduce friction between the surfaces. Pes anserine

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Paul Richard Inglis, Kenji Doma and Glen Bede Deakin

with the Declaration of Helsinki. Injury data were collected by direct observation at all games by the principal investigator and consultation with each team’s designated sports trainer. Injury data were recorded using a standardized reporting form which identified the position of the injured player, when and how the injury occurred, location and type of the injury as well as the severity of the injury. To allow for comparison with other rugby league injury studies, an injury was defined as any pain or disability that occurred during participation in a rugby league

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Monika Savarin, Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Richard Heller and Gregor Sersa

activation of an immune response. 11 Radiotherapy is one of the principal treatment modalities for primary tumors and their metastases. 12 Nowadays, irradiation is widely investigated for its associated effects on priming antitumor immunity. 13 There is growing evidence of irradiation’s effect on the antitumor immune response, inducing immunogenic cell death and generating danger signals. An important danger signal after irradiation is DNA released from the nucleus of dying cells. This DNA is recognized by the immune system as a DAMP, and can promote the activation of

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Atle Hole Saeterbakken, Dag-André Mo, Suzanne Scott and Vidar Andersen

-93 kg 9 220 -93 kg 4 217.5 2 -93 kg 4 132.5 1 -93 kg 4 245 9 5 1 -105 kg 5 275 6 3 6 -105 kg 4 215 -105 kg 3 200 -120 kg 4 220 1 +120 kg 1 192.5 1 significant difference between inclined and declined condition (p < 0.05). * significant difference compared to all other conditions (p < 0.05). Ethics Statement The study was approved by the local ethical committee (2009/1735/REK S⊘r-Øst D) and