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Eugeniusz Suwiński

Abstract

All societies of our civilization are growing old, people live longer and longer and there are more and more old people. It results in the fact that problems of old people, either individual or of social aspects, are getting one of the crucial tasks for the society nowadays. In fact, there are no grounds to envy or to feel compassion for old people. The old man is a fully normal man, only the old one. We are all growing old…whether we want it or not – and we can only wonder, how it will be, when we get old… Without any doubt, it is important to live as long as possible, but not less important is the quality of life, physical and mental condition, good mood and the most of all – the good health. The old age, may not be a flow of happiness, but it of course has its good prospects and can remain positive. The aim of that study is the attempt to show the status of a man in the process of ageing and all aspects connected with this process. The study should allow us not only to perceive the positive aspects of old age, but also to acquaint ourselves with the mechanism of growing old and show us how to reduce the instinctive fear of growing old and what to do to make this period of our lives bearable and stately. What does it mean to grow old? How does it feel like to be old? How have people tried to prevent the process of ageing in different cultures in the past centuries? How it is being done nowadays? What are the advantages of growing old? The attempt to find the answers for the above mentioned questions is the aim of that study. Its keynote is paradoxically quite optimistic and helps us to stay calm in the face of this inevitable fate we all are going to meet with.

Open access

I. A. Bako, M. A. Jamda, O. Audu and M. O. Araoye

Abstract

The study was aimed at determining the HIV risk perception and sexual behaviour among commercial motorcyclists in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. The study design was cross sectional study among 344 consenting, registered commercial motorcyclists, aged 18 years and above working in Makurdi, Benue State capital. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents from a total of 5000 motorcyclists spread across 45 stations within Makurdi. Data was collected in September 2014 using structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0. The mean age was 28.18 (± 7.94) years. Approximately 93% of the participants reported ever having sex. The average lifetime number of sexual partners was 8.9 (± 20.26) while 48.0% reported having had more than one sexual partner in the previous one year. A two third of the respondents (66.7%) reported use of condom during their last sex with a non-regular partner. Slightly less than a quarter (24.1%) of the respondents have paid to have sex in the previous one year. However only 29.6% perceived themselves as been at moderate or high risk of contracting HIV. There was significant association between risk perception and use of condom during last sex with any partner {OR-2.687 (95% CI= 1.337 - 5.400) p=0.005}. There is low personal risk perception despite high proportion of risky sexual behaviours among the respondents. HIV prevention interventions among commercial motorcyclists need to be more tailored and with the objective of building assertive skills in addition to imparting knowledge.

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Maria Teresa Medeiros Garcia, Pedro Nuno Louro Silvestre Rodrigues and Francisco Nunes

stock . Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. David, M., & Menchik, P. L. (1985). The effect of social security on lifetime wealth accumulation and bequests. Economica , 52, 421-434. Dooley, M., Frankel, J., & Mathieson, D. J. (1987). International capital mobility: What do saving-investment correlations tell us? Staff Papers-International Monetary Fund , 34(3), 503-530. Dynan, K. E., Skinner, J., & Zeldes, S. P. (2002). The importance of bequests and life-cycle saving in capital accumulation: A new answer

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Ngo Trung Thanh, Philippe Lebailly and Nguyen Thi Dien

and Migrations: Comparing Lifetime and Fixed Interval Return and Onward Migration. Economic Geography, 77 (1), 23-40. Newbold, K. B., & Bell, M. (2001). Return and onwards migration in Canada and Australia: Evidence from fixed interval data. International Migration Review, 35 (4), 1157-1184. Nghi, N. Q., Trịnh, B. V., Châu, N. T. B., & Luân, N. T. (2012). Các nhân tố ảnh hưởng đến quyết định của công nhân khi lựa chọn khu công nghiệp Hòa Phú để làm việc. Tạp chí Khoa học Trường Đại học Cần Thơ, 24 , 274-282. Niedomysl, T., & Amcoff, J. (2011

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Daniel Guerrero and Jordi Rosell

, COLCIENCIAS. Primera edición. Santafé de Bogotá. Colombia. Wade, R. (1992). East Asia’s economic success: Conflicting perspectives, partial insights, shaky evidence. World Politics 44(2): 270–320. DOI: 10.2307/2010449 Waldman, D.A. and Avolio, B.J. (1986). A meta-analysis of age differences in job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 71: 33-38. Wei, H. (2008). Measuring Human Capital Flows for Australia: A Lifetime Labour Income Approach . Australian Bureau of Statistics, Research Paper no. 1351.0.55.023 World Wildlife Fund Colombia

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Genoveva Millán Vázquez de la Torre, Virginia Navajas-Romero and Ricardo Hernández Rojas

US and their descendants.” Labour economics 16(2): 161-170. Gold, R., Y. L. Michael, E. P. Whitlock, F. A. Hubbell, E. D. Mason, B. L. Rodriguez, M. M. Safford and G. E. Sarto (2006). “Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and lifetime morbidity burden in the women’s health initiative: a cross-sectional analysis.” Journal of Women’s Health 15(10): 1161-1173. González-González, J. M., F. D. Bretones, V. Zarco and A. Rodríguez (2011). Women, immigration and entrepreneurship in Spain: A confluence of debates in the face of a complex reality. Women