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Participation and spatial transformation in large housing estates in Poland. Case study of Ursynów Północny

stage of estate development ( Herbst 1975 ). Ursynów’s design was an attempt to combine the positives of the neighbourhood unit and traditional urban space, forming a ‘city within the city’. Due to the above-mentioned features, Ursynów Północny presents more qualities that are endangered than issues to be tackled. Therefore the article focuses on the potential of housing estates and good practices which can be tracked throughout their lifetime. In this paper Ursynów Północny is considered as a part of the city equivalent to inner-city districts. Planning the

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The symbolic dimension of the city – the presence of a dragon in the urban space of Krakow

fortifications, the waste and garbage left on the spot; the city “grew upwards” preserving its cultural past in the form of layers (and Krakow is such a city). It sometimes happens that these layers are built from the ruins and debris after dramatic events in the history of cities. For example, the wartime and post WW2 fate of Warsaw, Dresden and Gdańsk can be recalled here. There are also cities whose lifetime, continuity of lasting, can be measured not in hundreds but in thousands of years (Jerusalem was founded 3000 years BC, Damascus is over 7000 years old, Rome was

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