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Heid Nøkleby

depression. International Journal of Eating Disorders 34 (2): 211-219 Kessler, R. C. & Berglund, P. & Demler, O. & Jin, R. & Merikangas, KR. & Walters, E. E. (2005): Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry 62: 593-602 Kessler, R. C. & McGonagle, K. A. & Zhao, S. & Nelson, C. B. & Hughes, M. & Eshleman, S. & Wittchen, H. A. & Kendler, K. S. (1994): Lifetime and 12-months prevalence of DSM-II-R psychiatric disorders

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Davide Filippi

Abstract

This article addresses the process of political organization and unionizing among university researchers in Italy which are formally considered to be ‘in training’. This condition puts them in a sort of liminal space, between being recognized as fully employed professionals and being instead considered lifetime students. Their effort to organize politically can be seen as one of many ways through which students are fighting against the establishment of the neoliberal university model. The analysis is focused on the Italian movement called CRNS - Coordinamento dei Ricercatori non Strutturati (Non-structured Research Fellows Coordination), which formed to address this defining issue. The CRNS experiment aimed at achieving a sense of unity among the fragmented academic workforce and it can be considered a prototype of a new, grassroots form of union activity and organizing. The empirical data used in the analysis consists of ten in-depth interviews with university researchers, all Italian citizens, equally divided between men and women, who have all had to move around, as a function of their career and who have all been involved, to different degrees, in political and union organizing initiatives, regarding their conditions of ‘perpetual students’ rather than ‘not quite employed’.

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Dominic Sagoe, Torbj⊘rn Torsheim, Helge Molde, Cecilie Schou Andreassen and Ståle Pallesen

Psychiatry, 71 (3), 254- 261. Pope Jr., H. G., Kanayama, G., Athey, A., Ryan, E., Hudson, J. I., & Baggish, A. (2013). The lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and dependence in Americans: Current best estimates. American Journal of Addictions , doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12118.x [Epub ahead of print] Sagoe, D., Molde, H., Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim, T., & Pallesen, S. (2014a). The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiology, 24 (5), 383-398. Sagoe, D., Andreassen

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Dominic Sagoe, Torbjørn Torsheim, Helge Molde, Cecilie Schou Andreassen and Ståle Pallesen

. Brady, M. Galanter, & P. Conrod (Eds.), Drug abuse and addiction in medical illness: Causes, consequences and treatment (pp. 251–264). New York: Springer. Pope Jr., H. G., Kanayama, G., & Hudson, J. I. (2012). Risk factors for illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use in male weightlifters: A cross-sectional cohort study. Biological Psychiatry, 71 (3), 254– 261. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.06.024 Pope Jr., H. G., Kanayama, G., Athey, A., Ryan, E., Hudson, J. I., & Baggish, A. (2013). The lifetime prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and dependence in

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Anastasios Fotiou, Eleftheria Kanavou, Clive Richardson and Anna Kokkevi

treatment for opioid analgesic abuse. Pain, 139 , 127–135. Conway, K. P., Compton, W., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2006). Lifetime comorbidity of DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders and specifc drug use disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67 , 247–257. Council of the European Union (2012, December 29). Council Recommendation No. 2012/C 402/01 on the EU Drugs Strategy (2013-20) . Fleary, S. A., Heffer, R. W., & McKyer, E. L. (2011). Dispositional, ecological and biological

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Alessia Mammone, Francesco Fabi, Emanuela Colasante, Valeria Siciliano, Sabrina Molinaro, Ludwig Kraus and Carla Rossi

(3), 184–194. Siliquini, R., Faggiano, F., Geninatti, S., Versino, E., Mitola, B., & Ippolito, R. (2001). Patterns Of Drug Use Among Young Men In Piedmont (Italy). Drug And Alcohol Dependence , 64 , 329–335. Sneed, C. D., Morisky, D. E., Rotheram-Borusa, M. J. Lee, S., & Ebin, V. J. (2004). Indices Of Lifetime Polydrug Use Among Adolescents. Journal Of Adolescence, 27 , 239–249. Van Amsterdam, J., Opperhuizen, A., Koeter, M., & Van Den Brink, W. (2010). Ranking The Harm Of Alcohol, Tobacco And Illicit Drugs For The Individual And The Population. European

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Torbjørn Torsheim, Mari-Anne Sørlie, Asgeir Olseth and Gunnar Bjørnebekk

Abstract

AIMS – We examined the effects of temperamental dispositions, friends using alcohol and parental monitoring on grade 7 students’ alcohol use patterns.

DESIGN – The analyses were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 3710 grade 7 students (mean age =12.53) that participated in a large Norwegian school-based intervention study. Alcohol user patterns were measured through combining self-reported lifetime alcohol experience, heavy episodic drinking and any alcohol involvement in the previous 30 days. Behavioural inhibition/activation sensitivity (BIS/BAS), parental monitoring and the number of friends using alcohol were measured through the adolescents’ self-report.

RESULTS – As many as 68.8% of boys and 83.3% of girls were non-users of alcohol, whereas 9.1% of boys and 3.9% of girls reported use of alcohol last month. Heavy episodic drinking last month was reported by 3.1% of the boys and by 0.8 % of the girls. A multinomial regression analysis revealed strong associations between the number of friends using alcohol and alcohol user patterns, moderate inverse associations between parental monitoring and alcohol user patterns, and a weak association between BIS/BAS components and alcohol user patterns.

CONCLUSION – The results demonstrate the importance of socio-environmental factors in a period in which alcohol use is predictive of later negative outcomes.

Open access

Signe Ravn and Jakob Demant

Prevalence and perceptions of ketamine use among Danish clubbers: A mixed-method study

AIMS - This article describes the prevalence of ketamine use among Danish recreational drug users and provides a contextual understanding of ketamine use within this group. METHODS AND DATA - The analysis is based on a mixed-methods night club study combining a survey among guests in night clubs (N=1,632) with qualitative interviews (9 focus group interviews, 6 double interviews, 7 individual interviews; 53 clubbers in total). RESULTS - 10% of the clubbers have tried ketamine (lifetime use). The ketamine users have also tried a range of other drugs. When taken in club settings, ketamine is often part of a poly-drug repertoire. When used in private settings, ketamine is often taken alone to explore its hallucinogenic effects. The users are aware of the potency of the drug, but do not pay attention to long-term negative effects of ketamine use. CONCLUSION - Ketamine users predominantly prefer to use ketamine in private settings. This can be viewed as a strategy for risk management, but also as a way of optimising the combination of drug - place - social - body, thereby creating a drug experience that is not possible in public settings.

Open access

Sigrid Vorobjov, Helve Saat and Merike Kull

Abstract

AIM – to investigate the relationship between levels of social skills and drug use among 15–16-year-old students in Estonia. METHODS – A total of 2,460 Estonian schoolchildren, born in 1995, participated in the ESPAD study in 2011. Individual social skills levels were measured with questions on prosocial and antisocial behaviours assessing how children perform within their social milieu. The relationship between social skills levels and drug use was estimated using chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for gender, parents’ education and financial well-being, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate risks of drug use by social skills level. RESULTS – Students with lower social skills were at greater risk of starting smoking and smoking daily (50% risk increase). Students with low social skills had a higher risk of lifetime use of cannabis (OR=1.4; 95%CI 1.1–1.9), sedatives/tranquillisers without a prescription (OR=2.3; 1.4–3.9), and inhalants (OR=1.9; 1.2–3.0). The number of students with lower social skills was significantly higher among boys than girls: 35% vs 19%. CONCLUSIONS – Students’ social skill levels were related to their licit and illicit drug use. A low level of social skills can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to drug use. As boys’ social skills levels appeared much lower and their drug use higher than that of girls, we suggest that gender-related risk prevention programmes of social skills training could be beneficial in preventing drug use.

Open access

Ervin Toçi, Dorina Çanaku, Arjan Bregu, Eduard Kakarriqi, Enver Roshi and Genc Burazeri

Abstract

AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.