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Open access

Ewa Kedzierska and Izabela Wach

Abstract

In today's world, depression is one of the more prevalent forms of mental illness. According to WHO, about 10%-30% of all women and 7%-15% of all men are afflicted by depression at least once in their life-times. Today, depression is assessed to be affecting 350 million people. Regarding this issue, an important challenge for current psychopharmacology is to develop new, more effective pharmacotherapy and to understand the mechanism of action of known antidepressants. Furthermore, there is the necessity to improve the effectiveness of anti-depression treatment by way of bringing about an understanding of the neurobiology of this illness. In achieving these objectives, animal models of depression can be useful. Yet, presently, all available animal models of depression rely on two principles: the actions of known antidepressants or the responses to stress. In this paper, we present an overview of the most widely used animal tests and models that are employed in assessing antidepressant-like activity in rodents. These include amphetamine potentiation, reversal of reserpine action, the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, learned helplessness, chronic mild stress and social defeat stress. Moreover, the advantages and major drawbacks of each model are also discussed.

Open access

Bereczki Dániel, Balla Árpád, Pelok Benedek and Szatmári Szabolcs

mesencephalon and its relation to Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 2016;139(Suppl 1):8-26. DOI: 10.1111/jnc.13670 24. Dagur G, Warren K, Schwamb R, Dalpiaz A, Gandhi J, Khan SA. Neuro-urological manifestations of Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Neuroscience 2016;126:481-487. DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2015.1048548 25. Chakraborty S, Nian F-S, Tsai J-W, Karmenyan A, Chiou A. Quantification of the metabolic state in cell-model of Parkinson’s disease by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Scientific Reports 2016; 6, art. no. 19145, DOI