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Open access

Walter Fröscher, Timo Kirschstein and Johannes Rösche

Summary

Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

Aim. This review addresses the special aspects of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy.

Methods. We analyzed the literature up to December 2015.

Results. Based on current evidence the management of tumor-related seizures does not differ substantially from that applied to epilepsies from other etiologies. Therefore, the choice of an AED is based, above all, on tolerability and pharmacokinetic interactions with chemotherapeutic drugs. Levetiracetam is recommended by many authors as first-line therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy. Due to the possibility of interactions, the combination of enzyme-inducing AEDs and chemotherapeutic drugs, is usually not recommended as a first choice. Currently there is no evidence that prophylactic prescription of long-term AEDs in brain tumor-patients who did not present with seizures is justified. Because of the high risk of recurrence, however, AED treatment should be strongly considered after a single brain tumor-related seizure. The decision to withdraw AEDs must carefully consider the risk of seizure recurrence.

Conclusion. At present levetiracetam is the preferred drug in brain tumor-related epilepsy, especially when drug interactions need to be avoided. In the future we hope to acquire more targeted drugs against this disorder by uncovering its pathogenesis.

Open access

Ewa Kedzierska and Izabela Wach

Abstract

In today's world, depression is one of the more prevalent forms of mental illness. According to WHO, about 10%-30% of all women and 7%-15% of all men are afflicted by depression at least once in their life-times. Today, depression is assessed to be affecting 350 million people. Regarding this issue, an important challenge for current psychopharmacology is to develop new, more effective pharmacotherapy and to understand the mechanism of action of known antidepressants. Furthermore, there is the necessity to improve the effectiveness of anti-depression treatment by way of bringing about an understanding of the neurobiology of this illness. In achieving these objectives, animal models of depression can be useful. Yet, presently, all available animal models of depression rely on two principles: the actions of known antidepressants or the responses to stress. In this paper, we present an overview of the most widely used animal tests and models that are employed in assessing antidepressant-like activity in rodents. These include amphetamine potentiation, reversal of reserpine action, the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, learned helplessness, chronic mild stress and social defeat stress. Moreover, the advantages and major drawbacks of each model are also discussed.

Open access

Duncan Palka, Mahinda Yogarajah, Hannah R. Cock and Marco Mula

. Neurol., 2006, 59: 35–41. doi: 10.1002/ana.20685 Hindley D., Ali A., Robson C.: Diagnoses made in a secondary care “fits, faints, and funny turns” clinic . Arch. Dis. Child., 2006, 91: 214–218. doi: 10.1136/adc.2004.062455 MacDonald B.K., Cockerell O.C., Sander J.W., Shorvon S.D.: The incidence and lifetime prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study in the UK . Brain, 2000, 123: 665–676. doi: 10.1093/brain/123.4.665 Mellers J.D.C.: The approach to patients with ‘non-epileptic seizures’ . Postgrad. Med. J., 2005

Open access

Bereczki Dániel, Balla Árpád, Pelok Benedek and Szatmári Szabolcs

mesencephalon and its relation to Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 2016;139(Suppl 1):8-26. DOI: 10.1111/jnc.13670 24. Dagur G, Warren K, Schwamb R, Dalpiaz A, Gandhi J, Khan SA. Neuro-urological manifestations of Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Neuroscience 2016;126:481-487. DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2015.1048548 25. Chakraborty S, Nian F-S, Tsai J-W, Karmenyan A, Chiou A. Quantification of the metabolic state in cell-model of Parkinson’s disease by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Scientific Reports 2016; 6, art. no. 19145, DOI

Open access

Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

. Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis: Polysomnographic and clinical findings. Somnologie-Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin. 2004;8(2):53-60. 16. Torontali ZA, Grace KP, Horner RL, Peever JH. Cholinergic involvement in control of REM sleep paralysis. J Physiol. 2014; 592(7):1425-6. 17. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. Sleep paralysis and “the bedroom intruder”: The role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection. Med Hypotheses. 2014;83(6):755-7. 18. Sharpless BA1, Barber JP. Lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis: a systematic

Open access

Jakub Siembida, Piotr Frończuk, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Aleksandra Siek and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Abstract

Introduction According to the data obtained in the EZOP Poland study (2015), the prevalence of alcohol dependence in lifetime in Poland amounts to about 2.2% of the population, entailing enormous social, family and personal harm, including health damage. It is estimated that about 72% of alcohol-dependent patients complain about one or more problems related to the sexual sphere, which may result from both the development of somatic complications in the course of alcohol dependence, and from psychiatric complications that themselves can lead to sexual dysfunction. There are reports and clinical observations indicating that the occurrence of sexual dysfunction (SD) can affect the shortening or interruption of the period of abstinence.

Aim The aim of this work is to show sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men and to discuss the factors that may affect the occurrence of the above-mentioned dysfunctions.

Material and methods The available literature was reviewed using Medline, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect browsers by entering the keywords: alcohol dependence, sexual dysfunction, comorbidity, alcohol-caused diseases and time descriptors: 1979-2016.

Results

• Alcohol dependence is associated with the occurrence of various types of sexual dysfunctions (SD).

• The diagnosis of SD should take into account all possible causes that may lead to the development of SD in this group of patients, including the comorbidity of somatic diseases or the negative impact of drugs on sexual function.

• Occurrence of SD is connected with a higher risk of abstinence interruption.

• There is a need to carry out more research in order to better understand the relationship between alcohol dependence and the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions.

Open access

Josef Parnas, Paul Møller, Tilo Kircher, Jørgen Thalbitzer, Lennart Jansson, Peter Handest, Dan Zahavi, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska and Dariusz Juchnowicz

schizophrenia: a phenomenological perspective; W: Kircher T, David A. red., The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press: 2003, s. 127-141. 12. Parnas J, Cannon T, Jacobsen B, Schulsinger H, Schulsinger F, Mednick SA. Life-time DSM-IIIR diagnostic outcomes in offspring of schizophrenic mothers: the results from the Copenhagen High Risk Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 707-714. 13. Matthysse S, Holzman PS, Gusella JF, Levy DL, Harte CB, Jørgensen Å, et al. Linkage of eye movement dysfunction to chromosome 6p in schizophrenia

Open access

Aleksandra Siek, Agata Makarewicz, Łukasz Łobejko, Anna Gralewska, Joanna Tomaka, Justyna Szymańska-Piekarczyk, Jakub Siembida and Hanna Karakuła Juchnowicz

References 1. World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. 2. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. 3. Christenson GA, Pyle RL, Mitchell JE. Estimated lifetime prevalence of trichotillomania in college-students. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1991; 52: 415-417. 4. Cohen LJ, Stein DJ, Simeon D, Spadaccini E, Rosen J, Aronowitz B, Hollander E. Clinical profile

Open access

Țica Ovidiu, Otilia Anca Țica, Adrian Hatos, Larisa Roșan and Mircea Ioachim Popescu

References 1. Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, Ahlsson A, Atar D, Casadei B, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. European Heart Journal 2016;37(38): 2893-2962 2. Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Kors JA, van Herpen G, Stricker BH, et al. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. Eur Heart J 2006;27:949 - 953 3. Colilla S, Crow A, Petkun W, Singer DE, Simon T, Liu X. Estimates of current and

Open access

Mads Gram Henriksen and Josef Parnas

: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study. World Psychiatry, 2011; 10: 200–204. 50. Parnas J., Carter J., Nordgaard J. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective high-risk study. Early Interv Psychiatry, 2016; 10: 45-53. 51. Haug E., Øie M., Andreassen O.A., Bratlien U., Raballo A., Nelson B., et al. Anomalous self-experiences contribute independently to social dysfunction in the early phases of schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry, 2014; 55: 475–82. 52. Skodlar