,9, 715. M iková , K. et al . 2013. Int. J. of Fatigue, 55, 33. S kočovský , P. et al . 2014. Náuka o materiáli. EDIS ŽU v Žiline. (in Slovak). T rško , L. et al . 2014. Dynamic Stength and Fatigue Lifetime, EDIS ŽU v Žiline. T rško , L. et al . 2014. Materials & Design, 57, 103. T rško , L. et al . 2017. J. of Mat. Eng. and Performance, 26, 6, 2784. U lewicz , R. M azur , M. Production Engineering Archives, No.1, 32.
Otakar Bokůvka, Michal Jambor, Libor Trško, František Nový and Barbara Lisiecka
J. Vlček, D. Jančar, J. Burda, M. Klárová, M. Velička and P. Machovčák
Based on the operational measurement, of which content was to determine ladle thermal profile, there were analysed causes of possible damage of lining in steel ladles by steel breakout through the ladle shell. There exists connection between thermal state of ladle lining during the operation and its lifetime. There were reached to the conclusion that the cause of failure in the lining of ladle is except for high temperature of bath, also wide interval of temperature change during the tap operation, in consequence with possible insufficient pre-heating of ladle, discontinuous operation of aggregate and damage of insulating lining layer, respectively deformation of ladles shell.
This paper presents three physical sources of the electric field in dielectrics: excess free volume charges with the distribution qv(x,y,z), free surface charges with the distribution qs(x,y,z) and frozen polarization state in the dielectric. They have a deciding influence on the parameters of the electret, in particular they determine the total lifetime of the electret and technical components made of it. The indeterminacy related to the mutual proportions of the spatial and surface charges was discussed: one can find an infinite number of distributions of surface qse(x,y,z) and spatial qve(x,y,z) charges leading to the same distribution of the electric field E(x,y,z). A general case of electret was considered, where a coexistence of relaxation decay of frozen polarization and Maxwellian relaxation dependent on volume conductivity of the dielectric is assumed. An attempt to interpret the charge lifetime in real electrets was made.
The influence of a p-type Si with different resistivity, charge carrier lifetime and emitter dopant impurities concentration on the crystalline silicon solar cells parameters were analyzed and experimentally checked. The findings were determined by quasi-steady-state photoconductance, current-voltage and spectral response methods. The study was accompanied by solar device simulation using a numerical PC1D program. The highest photoconversion efficiency of 15.13 % was obtained for the moncrystalline (Cz-Si) solar cell with a base resistivity of 1.8 Ωcm and an effective charge carrier lifetime of 22.9 μs. The results clearly confirmed the importance concerning the dopant level in a Si base material in relation to open circuit voltage and short circuit current possible to obtain from the solar cell. Reduction of a base material resistivtiy leads to a lower value of an effective charge carrier lifetime and photoconversion efficiency both for Cz-Si and multicrystalline (mc-Si) solar cells. The experimental results and calculation showed, that in the case of a solar cell produced on the basis of crystalline silicon, the most important spectral range for an efficiency of a cell is covering a wavelength range of 587 ÷ 838 nm.
A. Zieliński, W. Serbiński, B. Majkowska, M. Jażdżewska and I. Skalski
Influence of laser remelting at cryogenic conditions on corrosion resistance of non-ferrous alloys
The main reason for laser remelting of the components made of aluminium, copper and titanium alloys is to obtain high hardness and corrosion resistance at the surface for longer lifetime as result of the rapid solidification. The final microstructure, phase composition and properties of aluminium, copper and titanium alloys depend on the laser process parameters and obviously on the nature of the equilibrium system.
The effect of laser surface remelting at cryogenic conditions on the microstructure and corrosion characteristics of the AlSi13Mg1CuNi, SUPERSTON and Ti-6Al-4V alloys are presented. The beneficial effects of laser treatment on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of those alloys used for different products are observed.
E. Radziemska, T. Seramak and P. Ostrowski
Pure Silicon Recovering from Photovoltaic Modules
Photovoltaic technology is worldwide used to provide reliable and cost-effective electricity for industrial, commercial, residential and community applications. The average lifetime of PV modules can be expected to be more than 25 years. The disposal of PV systems will emerge as a problem, considering the still increasing production of PV modules. Recycling of such modules can be done at about the same cost level as its disposal. Recovering the pure silicon from damaged or end-of-life PV modules can lead to economical and environmental benefit. Chemical treatment conditions need to be precisely adjusted in order to achieve the required purity level of the recovered silicon. For crystalline silicon based PV systems, a series of etching processes has been carried out as follows: electric connectors (etching or removing), ARC and n-p junction etching. The chemistry of etching solutions was individually adjusted for the different silicon cell types. Efforts were taken in order to formulate a universal composition of etching solution.
A. Zieliński, S. Sobieszczyk, T. Seramak, W. Serbiński, B. Świeczko-Żurek and A. Ossowska
Biocompatibility and Bioactivity of Load-Bearing Metallic Implants
The main objective of here presented research is to develop the titanium (Ti) alloy base composite materials possessing better biocompatibility, longer lifetime and bioactivity behaviour for load-bearing implants, e.g. hip joint and knee joint endoprosthesis. The development of such materials is performed through: modeling the material behaviour in biological environment in long time and developing of new procedures for such evaluation; obtaining of a Ti alloy with designed porosity; developing of an oxidation technology resulting in high corrosion resistance and bioactivity; developing of technologies for hydroxyapatite (HA) deposition aimed at composite bioactive coatings; developing of technologies of precipitation of the biodegradable core material placed within the pores.
The examinations of degradation of Ti implants are carried out in order to recognize the sources of both early allergies and inflammation, and of long term degradation. The theoretical assessment of corrosion is made assuming three processes: electrochemical dissolution through imperfections of the anodic oxide layer, diffusion of metallic ions through the oxide layer, and dissolution of oxides themselves.
In order to increase the biocompatibility, the toxic elements, aluminium (Al) and vanadium (V) are eliminated. The experiments have shown that titanium - zirconium - niobium (Ti-Zr-Nb) alloy may be a such a material which can also be prepared by both powder metallurgy (P/M) technique and selective laser melting. The porous (scaffold) Ti-Zr-Nb alloy is now obtained by powder metallurgy, classical and with space holders used before melting and decomposed, or remained during melting and removed by subsequent water dissolution. The oxidation of porous materials is performed either by electrochemical technique in special electrolytes or by chemical and/or hydrothermal method in order to obtain the optimal oxide layer well adjacent to an interface, preventing the base metal against corrosion and bioactive because of its nanotubular structure, permitting injection of some species into the pores. The Ca, O and N ion implantation or deposition of zirconia sublayers may be used to increase the biocompatibility, bioactivity and corrosion resistance. The HA coating obtained by either electrophoretic, biomimetic or by sol-gel deposition should result in gradient structure similar to bone structure, possessing high adhesion strength. The core material of the porous material should result in a biodegradable material, allowing slower dissolution followed by stepwise growth of bone tissue and angiogenesis, preventing local inflammation processes, sustaining the mechanical strength close to that of non-porous material.
G. Golański, I. Pietryka, J. Jasak, J. Słania, P. Urbańczyk and P. Wieczorek
. Dobrzański J., Krztoń H., Zieliński A.: Development of the precipitation processes in low-alloy Cr-Mo type steel for evolution of the material state after exceeding the assessed lifetime, J. Achiev. Mater. Manufac. Eng., 2, 23, (2007), 19-22. 5. PN-75/H-84024 Steels for elevated temperatures service. Grades. 6. PN-EN ISO 643:2012 Steels - Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size. 7. Khan S. A., Islam M. A.: Influence of prior austenite grain size on the degree of temper embrittlement in Cr-Mo steel, J. Mater. Eng
D. Morozow, J. Narojczyk, M. Rucki and S. Lavrynenko
tribological performance. Surface and Coatings Technology, 206 (2011) 849-853. 12. Narojczyk J, Werner Z, Piekoszewski J., Szymczyk W., Effects of nitrogen implantation on lifetime of cutting tools made of SK5M tool steel. Vacuum, 78 (2005) 229-233. 13. Perry A.J., Treglio J.R., Bhat D.G., Boppana S.P., Kattamis T.Z., Schlichting G., Geist D.E., Effect of ion implantation on the residual stress, tribological and machining behavior of CVD and PVD TiN coated cemented carbide cutting tool inserts. Surface and Coatings Technology, 68-69 (1994) 294-300. 14
Nadia Al-Ayish, Otto During, Katarina Malaga, Nelson Silva and Kjartan Gudmundsson
Sustainability Potential of Concrete and Concrete Structures Considering their Environmental Impact, Performance and Lifetime,” Construction and Building Materials , Vol. 67, 2014, pp 321-337. 4. Racutanu G: The Real Service Life of Swedish Road Bridges - A Case Study, Doctoral thesis. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2001. 5. Mattsson HÅ: “Integrated Bridge Maintenance - Evaluation of a pilot project and future perspectives,” Doctoral thesis . KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden, 2008. 6. Safi