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Mojmír Mach

Editorial

The year 2010 is not gone yet but we already know that this year will be associated with one of the biggest losses in pharmacology and toxicology. On Tuesday, April 13, 2010, at the age of 97, one of the most influential pharmacologists in Eastern Europe, Professor Helena Rašková has left us. Her wisdom, generosity, kindness and hard work made it possible to create a positive environment for research and education, although sometimes she had to fight hard. Her incredible story "How I became a Pharmacologist" wroted by Prof. Rašková herself documents how rich and inspirational her life was [Rašková H. (1997). Pharmacology & Toxicology 80: 255-261]. In this issue you will find mostly works of her colleagues and friends who would like to pay homage to the mother and grandmother of Czecho-Slovak pharmacology and toxicology and to the wonderful person who Prof. Helena Rašková was. She touched many people in her lifetime, affected many and will truly be missed.

Open access

Marie Stiborová, Jitka Poljaková, Eva Martínková, Lucie Bořek-Dohalská, Tomáš Eckschlager, Rene Kizek and Eva Frei

antagonists reduce chemotherapy-induced premature senescence and facilitate apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Int J Cancer   127 : 1240-1248. McCormick DL, Adamowski CB, Fiks A, Moon RC. (1981). Lifetime dose-response relationships for mammary tumor induction by a single administration of N -methyl- N -nitrosourea, Cancer Res   41 : 1690-1694. Monnot M, Mauffret O, Simon V, Lescot E, Psaume B, Saucier JM, Charra M, Belehradek J Jr and Fermandjian S. (1991). DNA-drug recognition and effects on topoisomerase II

Open access

Chand D. Basha and Rajarami G. Reddy

-Santos JE. (2010). Vitamin D receptor haplotypes affect lead levels during pregnancy. Sci Total Environ 408 : 4955–60. Rossi-George A, Virgolini MB, Weston D, Thiruchelvam M, Cory-Slechta DA. (2011). Interactions of lifetime lead exposure and stress: behavioral, neurochemical and HPA axis effects. Neurotoxicology 32 (1): 83–99. Ryzhavskii BY, Lebed’ko OA, Belolyubskaya DS, Baranova SN. (2008). Long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to lead on brain development in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol 38 (2): 145–9. Saleh IA, Shinwari N, mashhour A

Open access

Ali Rajabpour Sanati, Tahereh Farkhondeh and Saeed Samarghandian

, cognitive deficit and neuronal cell loss in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. Phytomed 22 : 86–93. Conti AC, Lowing JL, Susick LL, Bowen SE. (2012). Investigation of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8 on toluene and ethanol neurobehavioral actions. Neurotoxicol Teratol 34 : 481–8. Coon S, Stark A, Peterson E, Gloi A, Kortsha G, Pounds J, Chettle D, Gorell J. (2006). Whole-body lifetime occupational lead exposure and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Environ Health Perspect 114 : 1872. Deleu D, Hanssens Y. (2000). Cerebellar dysfunction in

Open access

. Harold I. Zeliger

Environ Med 46(3): 241-48. Li P, Wang B, Sun F, Li Y, LI Q, Lang H et al., (2015). Mitchondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure. Sci Rep 5: 10229. Lind PM, Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Wolff MS, Lind L. (2013). Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change. Chemosphere 90(3): 998-1004. Liu J, Qu W, Kadiiska MB. (2009). Role of oxidative stress

Open access

Ewa Kedzierska and Izabela Wach

Abstract

In today's world, depression is one of the more prevalent forms of mental illness. According to WHO, about 10%-30% of all women and 7%-15% of all men are afflicted by depression at least once in their life-times. Today, depression is assessed to be affecting 350 million people. Regarding this issue, an important challenge for current psychopharmacology is to develop new, more effective pharmacotherapy and to understand the mechanism of action of known antidepressants. Furthermore, there is the necessity to improve the effectiveness of anti-depression treatment by way of bringing about an understanding of the neurobiology of this illness. In achieving these objectives, animal models of depression can be useful. Yet, presently, all available animal models of depression rely on two principles: the actions of known antidepressants or the responses to stress. In this paper, we present an overview of the most widely used animal tests and models that are employed in assessing antidepressant-like activity in rodents. These include amphetamine potentiation, reversal of reserpine action, the forced swimming test, the tail suspension test, learned helplessness, chronic mild stress and social defeat stress. Moreover, the advantages and major drawbacks of each model are also discussed.

Open access

Walter Fröscher, Timo Kirschstein and Johannes Rösche

Summary

Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10-100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established.

Aim. This review addresses the special aspects of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy.

Methods. We analyzed the literature up to December 2015.

Results. Based on current evidence the management of tumor-related seizures does not differ substantially from that applied to epilepsies from other etiologies. Therefore, the choice of an AED is based, above all, on tolerability and pharmacokinetic interactions with chemotherapeutic drugs. Levetiracetam is recommended by many authors as first-line therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy. Due to the possibility of interactions, the combination of enzyme-inducing AEDs and chemotherapeutic drugs, is usually not recommended as a first choice. Currently there is no evidence that prophylactic prescription of long-term AEDs in brain tumor-patients who did not present with seizures is justified. Because of the high risk of recurrence, however, AED treatment should be strongly considered after a single brain tumor-related seizure. The decision to withdraw AEDs must carefully consider the risk of seizure recurrence.

Conclusion. At present levetiracetam is the preferred drug in brain tumor-related epilepsy, especially when drug interactions need to be avoided. In the future we hope to acquire more targeted drugs against this disorder by uncovering its pathogenesis.

Open access

Duncan Palka, Mahinda Yogarajah, Hannah R. Cock and Marco Mula

. Neurol., 2006, 59: 35–41. doi: 10.1002/ana.20685 Hindley D., Ali A., Robson C.: Diagnoses made in a secondary care “fits, faints, and funny turns” clinic . Arch. Dis. Child., 2006, 91: 214–218. doi: 10.1136/adc.2004.062455 MacDonald B.K., Cockerell O.C., Sander J.W., Shorvon S.D.: The incidence and lifetime prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study in the UK . Brain, 2000, 123: 665–676. doi: 10.1093/brain/123.4.665 Mellers J.D.C.: The approach to patients with ‘non-epileptic seizures’ . Postgrad. Med. J., 2005