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Beata Pawłowska, Emilia Potembska, Maciej Zygo and Marcin Olajossy

lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(3):300-10. 16. Zakharov S, Navratil T, Pelclova D. Suicide attempts by deliberate selfpoisoning in children and adolescents. Psychiatry Res. 2013;210(1):302-7. 17. Wichstrøm L. Predictors of adolescent suicide attempts: a nationally representative longitudinal study of Norwegian adolescent. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39(5):603-10. 18. Kelly TM, Lynch KG, Donovan

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Marta Bembnowska and Jadwiga Jośko-Ochojska

Washington; 2009. 29. Goldstein B, Levitt A. Is current alcohol consumption associated with increased lifetime prevalence of major depression and suicidality? Results from a pilot community survey. Compr Psychiatry. 2006;47(5):330-3. 30. McCarty C, Wymbs B, King K, et al. Developmental Consistency in Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2012;73(3):444-53. 31. Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, et al. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder

Open access

Penny Vera-Sanso


Despite having the second largest population of people over age 60, India has yet to generate an effective national framework for confronting the exigencies of later life, especially those that are derived from a lifetime of poverty. This article demonstrates that this lack of interest in 'past' generations is driven by the unfortunate coincidence of externally endorsed concerns and concepts, and internal politics. Foundational assumptions on the economy and development and on old-age capacities and inter-generational relations, push for evidence collation which disincentivises more empirically relevant analyses, creating the fiction of dependency ratios and inhibiting the generation of evidence-based knowledge on later life. The consequence is that India prioitises current and future generations over ‘past’ generations. Policies on older people, who are treated as 'other' at international and national levels, are tied to competition for votes at national and state elections. Currently, policy is not designed around the concept of older people’s rights, nor of meeting need. The first outcome of external and internal drivers is that national and state governments are not interested in, nor know, how many older people qualify for a pension; instead they fix budget ceilings and, at a local level, allocate and manage pensions in a random fashion. The second outcome is that pension values are allowed to wither on the vine, waiting on the political context in which one or more parties places a pension uplift at the centre of their manifesto.

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Barbara Długołęcka, Ewa Jówko, Jan Czeczelewski, Igor Cieśliński and Andrzej Klusiewicz

20, 1013-1021. 7. Almeida M. (2012). Aging mechanisms in bone. BoneKEy Reports 1, 102. 8. Bloomfield S.A. (2005). Contributions of physical activity to bone health over the lifespan. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation 21(1), 68-76. 9. Morseth B., Emaus N., Jørgensen L. (2011). Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. A review. Norsk Epidemiologi 20(2), 173-178. 10. Bailey C.A., Kukuljan S., Daly R.M. (2010). Effects of lifetime loading history on cortical bone density and

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Nasim Habibzadeh

.Dairy Sci. Assoc. 77:3498-3505. Soroko S., T. L. Holbrook, S Edelstein, E. Barrett (1994) Lifetime milk consumption and bone mineral density in older women. Am.J. Public Health 84:1319-1322. Sambrook P., C. Cooper (2006) Osteoporosis. Lancet 367:2010-2018. Woo J., W. Lau, L. Xu, C. Wai Kei Lam, X. Zhao, W. Yu, X. Xing, E. Lau, B. Kuhn-Sherlock, N. Pocock, R. Eastell (2007) Milk supplementation and bone health in young adult Chinese women. J. Women's Health 16:692-702.

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Harri Rintala, Roope Sovelius, Pirjo Rintala, Heini Huhtala, Simo Siitonen and Heikki Kyröläinen

rally drivers. J. Strength Cond. Res., 19: 777-784. 4. Battie M.C., Videman T., Gibbons L.E., Fisher L.D., Manninen H., Gill K. (1995) 1995 Volvo Award in clini­cal sciences. Determinants of lumbar disc degenera­tion. A study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins. Spine, 20: 2601-2612. 5. Boden S.D., McCowin P.R., Davis D.O., Dina T.S., Mark A.S., Wiesel S. (1990) Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the cervical spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J. Bone