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Paulina Wróbel-Knybel, Michał Flis, Rafał Dubiel and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

. Recurrent isolated sleep paralysis: Polysomnographic and clinical findings. Somnologie-Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin. 2004;8(2):53-60. 16. Torontali ZA, Grace KP, Horner RL, Peever JH. Cholinergic involvement in control of REM sleep paralysis. J Physiol. 2014; 592(7):1425-6. 17. Jalal B, Ramachandran VS. Sleep paralysis and “the bedroom intruder”: The role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection. Med Hypotheses. 2014;83(6):755-7. 18. Sharpless BA1, Barber JP. Lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis: a systematic

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Jakub Siembida, Piotr Frończuk, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Aleksandra Siek and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

Abstract

Introduction According to the data obtained in the EZOP Poland study (2015), the prevalence of alcohol dependence in lifetime in Poland amounts to about 2.2% of the population, entailing enormous social, family and personal harm, including health damage. It is estimated that about 72% of alcohol-dependent patients complain about one or more problems related to the sexual sphere, which may result from both the development of somatic complications in the course of alcohol dependence, and from psychiatric complications that themselves can lead to sexual dysfunction. There are reports and clinical observations indicating that the occurrence of sexual dysfunction (SD) can affect the shortening or interruption of the period of abstinence.

Aim The aim of this work is to show sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men and to discuss the factors that may affect the occurrence of the above-mentioned dysfunctions.

Material and methods The available literature was reviewed using Medline, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect browsers by entering the keywords: alcohol dependence, sexual dysfunction, comorbidity, alcohol-caused diseases and time descriptors: 1979-2016.

Results

• Alcohol dependence is associated with the occurrence of various types of sexual dysfunctions (SD).

• The diagnosis of SD should take into account all possible causes that may lead to the development of SD in this group of patients, including the comorbidity of somatic diseases or the negative impact of drugs on sexual function.

• Occurrence of SD is connected with a higher risk of abstinence interruption.

• There is a need to carry out more research in order to better understand the relationship between alcohol dependence and the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions.

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Aleksandra Siek, Agata Makarewicz, Łukasz Łobejko, Anna Gralewska, Joanna Tomaka, Justyna Szymańska-Piekarczyk, Jakub Siembida and Hanna Karakuła Juchnowicz

References 1. World Health Organization. The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. 2. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. 3. Christenson GA, Pyle RL, Mitchell JE. Estimated lifetime prevalence of trichotillomania in college-students. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1991; 52: 415-417. 4. Cohen LJ, Stein DJ, Simeon D, Spadaccini E, Rosen J, Aronowitz B, Hollander E. Clinical profile

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Josef Parnas, Paul Møller, Tilo Kircher, Jørgen Thalbitzer, Lennart Jansson, Peter Handest, Dan Zahavi, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska and Dariusz Juchnowicz

schizophrenia: a phenomenological perspective; W: Kircher T, David A. red., The Self in Neuroscience and Psychiatry. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press: 2003, s. 127-141. 12. Parnas J, Cannon T, Jacobsen B, Schulsinger H, Schulsinger F, Mednick SA. Life-time DSM-IIIR diagnostic outcomes in offspring of schizophrenic mothers: the results from the Copenhagen High Risk Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50: 707-714. 13. Matthysse S, Holzman PS, Gusella JF, Levy DL, Harte CB, Jørgensen Å, et al. Linkage of eye movement dysfunction to chromosome 6p in schizophrenia

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Mads Gram Henriksen and Josef Parnas

: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study. World Psychiatry, 2011; 10: 200–204. 50. Parnas J., Carter J., Nordgaard J. Premorbid self-disorders and lifetime diagnosis in the schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective high-risk study. Early Interv Psychiatry, 2016; 10: 45-53. 51. Haug E., Øie M., Andreassen O.A., Bratlien U., Raballo A., Nelson B., et al. Anomalous self-experiences contribute independently to social dysfunction in the early phases of schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Compr Psychiatry, 2014; 55: 475–82. 52. Skodlar

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Reinhard Heun

) observed that suicide ideations were highly prevalent in patients with OCD; and although depression may be a contributory factor for suicidal ideations in patients with OCD, it was not the sole risk factor for suicidal ideations. In a recent large multinational study, suicidal ideation within the last month was reported by 6.4% (n = 200) of patients with OCD, a lifetime history of previous suicide attempts was observed in 9.0% (n = 314) ( Brakoulias et al. 2017 ). Cross-sectional studies reveal that OCD is not only associated with a high risk of depression but also of

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Danny Vumbi Likashi, Ravi Paul and Luty Jason

Research. 2005 Wiley Online Library Grucza, R. A., Bucholz, K. K., Rice, J. P. and Bierut, L. J. ‘Secular Trends in the Lifetime Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence in the United States: A Re-evaluation.’ Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2008; 32: 7, 63–770. Grucza R. A. Bucholz K. K. Rice J. P. Bierut L. J. ‘Secular Trends in the Lifetime Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence in the United States: A Re-evaluation.’ Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2008 32 7 63–770 Hannah R., and Max, R. Alcohol Consumption. Published

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Eleanor Mari Holzapfel and Christopher Paul Szabo

represent the nature of patients followed up having been admitted to the hospital because of symptom severity with either a manic or depressive episode. An American population study conducted between 2001 and 2003 revealed that the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder I was 1%, bipolar disorder II was 1.1% and bipolar disorder NOS was 1.4% ( Merikangas et al. 2007 ). Some studies estimate that bipolar disorder NOS might affect up to 6% of the general population ( Merikangas et al. 2007 ). Although the current study did not look at the nature of the psychiatric

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Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno

None 11 (57.9%) 9 (45.0%) 19 (100%) Borderline Obsessive-compulsive 2 (10.5%) 3 (15.8%) 5 (25.0%) 0 0.001 Depressive 1 (5.3%) 1 (5.0%) NAS 2 (10.5%) 5 (25.0%) Lifetime major childhood abuse Physical 1 (5.3%) 1 (5%) - Sexual 0 2 (10.0%) BMI mean (SD) 16.07 (1.09) 21.91 (4.63) 21.40 (2.50) 0.0001 Median (IQR) 16.10 (15.23-17.22) 20.04 (19.48-21.55) 21.20 (19.31-22.32) Length of illness yrs. mean (SD) 7.95 (11.54) 8.30 (7

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Niku Dhillon and Reinhard Heun

heavily relied on accurate patient recollection and timing of symptom events. Particularly the studies that reported an episode prevalence since clozapine initiation. This applied to both patients and healthcare staff when asked to clarify the presence or absence of NE. Generally, the studies did not explicitly document the time period over which the presence of NE was assessed during the patient interview, that is, whether the symptom was experienced currently, within the last week, since clozapine initiation or at any point over their lifetime. Jeong et al. (2008