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Victor Tak-lung Wong and Weng-nga Lao

SLE with long-standing leucopenia and anemia. 2.3 Malignancy and Sjogren’s syndrome Lymphoproliferative disease is the main cancer that is associated with primary Sjogren’s syndrome (SS). Lifetime risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients with primary SS has been reported to be 5–10% [ 8 ]. The majority of lymphomas seen in these patients are mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas and large B-cell lymphomas. 2.4 Malignancy and systemic sclerosis Risk of malignancy in patients with diffused systemic sclerosis appears to be increased, but with

Open access

Sophia Teng

the group taking fish oil compared with placebo. [ 6 ] In Lai’s study, 36 SLE patients were recruited. They received daily placebo or 1.2 g, 2.4 g, or 4.8 g of N-acetylcysteine. It was shown that 2.4 g and 4.8 g NAC reduced the SLEDAI score after 1 month (P = 0.0007), 2 months (P = 0.0009), 3 months (P = 0.0030), and 4 months (P = 0.0046). [ 7 ] Mood disorders affect up to 65% of the SLE patients over their lifetime, and the rate of psychiatric disorders are higher. Mind–body intervention is commonly used and focuses on reducing pain, stress, anxiety, fatigue

Open access

Cynthia Yan-yan Chan

depression in large cross-sectional and prospective data alike. Large epidemiological data found that a lifetime history of smoking was correlated with a lifetime history of major depressive disorder [ 34 ]. A 5-year prospective study conducted in 1,000 young adults found that depression increased the risk of progression to daily smoking and that daily smoking increased the risk of developing depression [ 35 ]. Furthermore, a 21-year prospective study also found that smokers with depression were more likely to progress to daily smoking and nicotine dependence [ 36 ]. There

Open access

Ray Sin-Ngai Ng

International Commission on Radiation Protection [ 35 ]. But the age of exposure should also be taken into account and that younger age will have higher cumulative risk. One Hong Kong study suggested that the associated lifetime cancer incidence for patients who are 20 years of age was estimated to be up to 0.622%. This is not negligible from the view of public [ 36 ]. Thus, ordering a PET-CT should be clinically justified. 3 Conclusion PET-CT is useful for diagnosing the rheumatic disease especially when the presentation, serology, and clinical pattern are