E. Snircova, T. Kulhan, G. Nosalova and I. Ondrejka
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood or adolescence is associated with a significantly higher lifetime risk of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, among others. Reports of co-morbidity rates are variable and influenced by assesment methodology and refferal bias, and may reflect lifetime rates within clinical groups. Up-to date studies revealed that as many as 85% of patients with ADHD have at least one psychiatric comorbidity and approximately 60% have at least two. Research and clinical practice has shown that having multiple co-existing psychiatric problems increase the severity of ADHD and behavioural problems, and is associated with incereased psychosocial impairment. The high rate of psychiatric problems co-occuring with ADHD has strong implications for the management of these patients. The presence of co-existing psychiatric conditions may moderate the response to treatment of ADHD and ADHD treatments may adversely affect and exacerbate the symptoms of the co-morbit condition. The aim of this article was to summarize the use of atomoxetine in the most frequent co-morbid disorders accompaining ADHD, ODD (oppositional defiant disorder) and anxiety, and to emphazise decrease of co-morbid symptoms with treatment of atomoxetine what exhort us to think about them as about possible subtypes of ADHD.
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Stanclakova L., Stasko J., Jedlnakova Z., Sokol J., Plamenova I., Lisa L., Fedor M. and Kublsz P.
Introduction: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT, phlebothrombosis) is a very important clinical problem with its resultant fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) as one of the possible consequences. Factor V Leiden (FV Leiden) is a genetic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC) and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Homozygous carriers of the FV Leiden mutation are estimated to have an 80-fold increased lifetime relative risk of VTE. Most homozygous carriers present with VTE before 40 years of age, but some can live thrombosis-free until the sixth or seventh decade of life or even remain asymptomatic for life. Case-controlled studies of patients with cancer revealed a four-fold increase in thromboembolic occurrence in acute leukaemia, with the risk of thrombosis persisting even after remission of the disease.
Case Report: The authors present a case report of the 61-year-old patient with leukaemic transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and development of DVT of the left leg (LL) as the first clinical manifestation of homozygous FV Leiden carrier. Due to his diagnosis it was not possible to indicate surgical treatment of DVT. After initial treatment with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and continuous intravenous application of unfractionated heparin (UFH) the deficiency of antithrombin III (AT III) potentiating the persistence of his hypercoagulable state developed. Treatment with the new oral anticoagulant - rivaroxaban, vasoprotective and antithrombotic drugs in the combination with mechanical methods of VTE prophylaxis led to a reduction in edema of left thigh and calf by 3.5 cm and 4 cm, respectively. Son of the patient experienced DVT at the age of 27 years, too.
Conclusion: In this report, we describe a case of the patient with DVT during the leukaemic transformation of MDS to AML as a relatively late first clinical manifestation of homozygous FV Leiden mutation. At the same time the article deals with the clinical aspects of discussed thrombophilia in the relatives of the patient, as well as with the etiopathogenesis, pharmacologic treatment options and possible complications of DVT (PE, pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome).
In parallel to the continual increase in cancer diagnosis all over the world, the number of studies on tumorigenesis is constantly rising. However, there are still no curative treatment options available for patients, particularly for those suffering from advanced metastatic malignancies, and many aspects related to carcinogenesis process have remained mysterious even in the 21 st century. Based on the global cancer statistics, one in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with some type of invasive cancer during their lifetime [ 1 , 2 , 3
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Pascal Meier, Olaf Franzen and Alexandra J. Lansky
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Jianping Li, Shanqun Jiang, Yan Zhang, Genfu Tang, Yu Wang, Guangyun Mao, Zhiping Li, Xiping Xu, Binyan Wang and Yong Huo
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Bulent Ergin, Coert J. Zuurbier, Rick Bezemer, Asli Kandil, Emre Almac, Cihan Demirci and Can Ince
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Vania Cruz-Ramón, Paulina Chinchilla-López, Oscar Ramírez-Pérez and Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
-González JA Garza AA Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis: Just a common finding or a predictor of poor outcome? Ann Hepatol 2016 6 902 6
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primary studies carried out in laboratories have been reported as valid and effective steps to proceed to further clinical applications.
Application of CTCs in breast cancer diagnosis
In March 2013, Dawson et al . revealed a clear relevance between the concentration of CTCs and expected lifetime as well as the comparison between the sensitivity of three different biomarkers in diagnosis of breast cancer: Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), cell-free ctDNA, and CTCs.[ 7 ] In this study, a targeted or whole-genome sequencing to track alternation in somatic genome