. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014; 129: S1-45. 11. Grams ME, Chow EK, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 62: 245-252. 12. Hoerger TJ, Wittenborn JS, Segel JE et al. A health policy model of CKD: 2. The cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria screening. Am J
Carmine Zoccali, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Evangelia Dounousi, Rossana Anastasi, Giovanni Tripepi and Francesca Mallamaci
Domokos L, Ábrám Z, Sebesi Sz and Finta Hajnal
Introduction: In 2010 Romania was ranked fourth in the European Union regarding the prevalence of ethnobotanical drug use with psychotropic effect. The main purpose of our survey was to collect data on substance use and assess drug consumption habits among participants at the 2011 Peninsula Music Festival in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania. Material and method: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 256 persons, using an anonymous, self-administered structured questionnaire, containing questions about the consumption patterns of illegal psychoactive drugs, as well as sociodemographic data which could influence drug consumption (age, gender, educational level, marital status of parents). Results: Ethnobotanical drug consumption had the highest lifetime prevalence (37.7%), the second most often used drug was cannabis (marijuana) with a lifetime prevalence of 35.2%. Males and females differed significantly in the use of marijuana (p = 0.023) and ethnobotanical drugs (p = 0.008) in the last 12 months, male respondents used more of these psychoactive substances. In the case of children with divorced parents the last 12 months marijuana use (p = 0.032) and ethnobotanical drug use (p = 0.013) was significantly higher than in the case of children whose parents were not divorced. Conclusions: The survey results show the importance of the development of health education programs and drug-prevention strategies for vulnerable goups (festival visitors, minors, children with divorced parents)
D Șeicaru, Dorina Constantinescu, Corina Frecus and D Bulucea
Introduction: Heterozygous β-thalassemia represents the mild form of the β-thalassemic syndromes, being compatible with normal lifetime. The importance of β-thalassemia consists in the fact that it maintains the "defective gene" in the population, favoring the appearance of new cases of Cooley's anaemia, the severe form of β-thalassemic syndromes. Current data estimate that 7% of the world's population is bearing β-thalassemia, over 400,000 children with β thalassemia being born annually, therefore the WHO estimates the doubling of this figure in the coming years.
Material and methods: We carried out a retrospective clinical study of over 450 cases diagnosed with β-thalassemia in the Dolj, Constanța and Vâlcea counties, along a period of 10 years (2001-2010), out of which we analyzed the family tree of 10 cases throughout 3-4 generations, starting from the cases of children diagnosed with β-thalassemia.
Results: The number of heterozygous subjects that emerged over 3-4 generations was of 60 cases with β-thalassemia and 9 cases with Cooley's anaemia. Thus, starting from the 10 cases of β-thalassemic married subjects (great grandfathers/great grandmothers, grandfathers/ grandmothers) along 3-4 generations (over a period of 70-80 years) the number of new β-thalassemia cases was 5.4 times higher.
Conclusions: According to our results, the last generation of the studied children and adolescents shows the presence of a total of 18 subjects with β-thalassemia, suggesting the increasing amount of heterozygotes in the population.
Andrzej Wincewicz, Sławka Urbaniak-Wasik, Antoinette Urbaniak, Marlena Mościcka-Rylska, Martyna Woltanowska, Mariusz Koda, Stanislaw Sulkowski and Joanna Reszeć
This paper presents a review on retinal gliosis illustrated by series of three cases of patients (a 39-year-old man and a 35-year-old woman with massive retinal gliosis (MRG) and a 51-year-old man with truly focal nodular gliosis of retina) with intraocular tumor-like masses and loss of vision, who recently suffered from painful inflammation of eyeball and who classically had a history of remote ocular trauma, onset of blindness early in lifetime or gradual but progressive loss of sight. The diagnosis of this pathological entity is given for the lesions that are composed of GFAP strongly positive, elongated, fusiform cells consistent with fibrillary astrocytes. As illustrated in cases from our pathological practice, PAS gave positive patchy disseminated reaction in form of cellular densely purplish granules in minority of cells representing glycogen storing. This feature could be consistent with PAS-positive Müller cells that also constitute retinal gliosis as one of cellular components of normal retina that is induced to reactive proliferation. Thus, the paper presents histological background and differential diagnosis of the entity.
Angel M. Dzhambov and Donka D. Dimitrova
Background: Noise pollution is considered a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Both are highly prevalent in Bulgaria, but their association has not been studied sufficiently.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of IHD associated with road traffic (Lden) and lifetime occupational noise exposure (LONE) in a Bulgarian sample.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 513 residents of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. A questionnaire asked about doctor-diagnosed IHD, LONE and confounding factors. Lden was derived from official noise map after geocoding participants’ addresses. In log-link Poisson regressions we investigated the relative risks of prevalent IHD. Sensitivity analyses examined subgroup differences.
Results: Lden ≥ 65 dB was associated with higher risk (RR=1.84, 95% CI: 0.61, 5.57) of IHD in long-term residents (≥ 20 years). LONE was associated with RR=1.76 (0.82, 3.78) for ever-exposed; and RR=2.35 (1.00, 5.52) for 15 - 47 years exposure.
Conclusions: Exposure to Lden≥65 dB was associated with non-significantly higher risk of IHD. Longer LONE was consistently associated with higher risk. In some subgroups the effect of noise was more pronounced.
P. Fildan, E. Dantes and O.C Arghir
Lung cancer is the most frequent neoplasm worldwide and the incidence in Constanta County is in continuous increasing. Occupation as a cause of lung cancer is common. The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in two patient cohorts from different areas of Romania: Constanta and Valcea. In 2005-2010, in Constanta and Valcea counties, 488 and 344 incident lung cancer cases were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. An exposure excess of 14.6% for patients from Constanta ever employed in occupations known to be associated with lung cancer (list A) was found, with the largest contributions from the oil refinery and shipbuilding industries No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women), in both groups of patients. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.
Maja Nikolić, Aleksandra Stanković and Ivana Mladenović Ćirić
In the recent years the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been an important public health hazard, especially in Serbia, a country with too many smokers. A common component of tobacco smoke is particulate matter less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), which is considered to be the most dangerous air pollutant for health.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and illnesses in schoolchildren in relation to their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
We conducted an epidemiological study that included 708 participants (49.15 % male) aged 11-14 years from Niš, Serbia. The children were surveyed by original structured questionnaire, based on the instrument developed for similar investigations. Data about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the last 12-month period of life and lifetime prevalence of respiratory illnesses were obtained. The questionnaire also included items about other indoor environmental determinants. Tobacco smoke was the most prevalent source of indoor air pollution at children’s home (60.73%). We found a significant association between ETS exposure and increased prevalence of dyspnea, wheezing, bronchitis and asthma among children.
It is necessary to inform parents in Serbia on the health effects of ETS exposure during childhood and to encourage them to change smoking habits in order to protect their children from ETS exposure at home.
Yvetta A. Koeva, Stefan T. Sivkov and Lilia S. Grozlekova
References 1. Weinberger DR, Lipska BK. Cortical maldevelopment, antipsychotic drugs, and schizophrenia: a search of common ground. Schizophr Res 1995;16:87-110. 2. DeLisi LE. Is schizophrenia a lifetime disorder of brain plasticity, growth and aging? Schizophr Res 1997;23:119-29. 3. Skaper SD. The biology of neurotrophins, signalling pathways, and functional peptide mimetics of neurotrophins and their receptors. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2008;7(1):46-62. 4. Skaper SD. The neurotrophin
Ionela Movileanu, Marius Harpa, Klara Branzaniuc, Horatiu Suciu, Ovidiu S. Cotoi, Peter Olah and Dan Simionescu
References 1. Carabello BA, Paulus WJ - Aortic stenosis. Lancet. 2009 Mar;373:956-66. 2. Butcher JT, Nerem RM - Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells in three-dimensional culture: comparison of phenotype with aortic smooth muscle cells. J Heart Valve Dis. 2004 May;13:478–85. 3. van Geldorp MW, Jamieson E, Kappetein WR, et al - Patient outcome after aortic valve replacement with a mechanical or biological prosthesis: weighing lifetime anticoagulant related event risk against reoperation risk. J Thorac Cardiovasc. 2009 Apr;137(4):881–6. 4
Yvetta A. Koeva, Stefan T. Sivkov, Valentin H. Akabaliev, Roumiana Y. Ivanova, Tania I. Deneva, Lilia S. Grozlekova and Vessela Georgieva
References 1. Weinberger DR, Lipska BK. Cortical maldevelopment, antipsychotic drugs, and schizophrenia: a search of common ground. Schizophr Res 1995;16:87-110. 2. DeLisi LE. Is schizophrenia a lifetime disorder of brain plasticity, growth and aging? Schizophr Res 1997;23:119-29. 3. Bersani G, Iannitelli A, Fiore M, Angelucci F, Aloe L. Data and hypotheses on the role of nerve growth factor and other neurotrophins in psychiatric disorders. Med Hypotheses 2000;55:199-207. 4. Thome J, Foley P