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Carmine Zoccali, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Evangelia Dounousi, Rossana Anastasi, Giovanni Tripepi and Francesca Mallamaci

. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014; 129: S1-45. 11. Grams ME, Chow EK, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 62: 245-252. 12. Hoerger TJ, Wittenborn JS, Segel JE et al. A health policy model of CKD: 2. The cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria screening. Am J

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Rune Dall Jensen, Ask Vest Christiansen and Kristoffer Henriksen


As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return.

Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes' expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance but had a great experience; the other was successful and won a silver medal but was truly unhappy with her experience. The debutants emphasize balancing their desire to perform with a desire for social experiences. They also discussed the challenges posed during preparation and goal setting.

Olympic debutants are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the “most important competition of their athletic careers” and “the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.” This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes.

Open access

Luka Vitez, Petra Zupet, Vesna Zadnik and Matej Drobnič

, 7 , 8 ). The questionnaire had to be filled completely to be submitted. All answers were received electronically and screened. Participants who did not appear on the race, or the ones not finishing the run, were excluded from the data analysis. Simple descriptive statistics was used to present the characteristics of the study population. Two different outcomes were observed in regard to running related injuries, namely: runners injured during last season (incidence), and runners with a life-time injury (prevalence). We used gender, age, BMI, running experience

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Lucia Maria Lotrean, Edna Arillo Santillan, James Thrasher and Valeria Laza

-cultural changes, which led, in 2007, to the admission of Romania into the European Union. Along with these socio-economic changes, the health risk behaviours of Romanian young people, such as illicit drug use, also suffered several changes ( 10 - 12 ). National representative studies carried out by the National Agency against drugs in Romania, show that the prevalence of illicit drug use during lifetime among the general population older than 15 years increased from 1.7% to 4.3% from 2007 to 2010. The highest prevalence at both time points were among the age group 15-24 years

Open access

Domokos L, Ábrám Z, Sebesi Sz and Finta Hajnal


Introduction: In 2010 Romania was ranked fourth in the European Union regarding the prevalence of ethnobotanical drug use with psychotropic effect. The main purpose of our survey was to collect data on substance use and assess drug consumption habits among participants at the 2011 Peninsula Music Festival in Tîrgu Mureș, Romania. Material and method: The study was carried out as a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 256 persons, using an anonymous, self-administered structured questionnaire, containing questions about the consumption patterns of illegal psychoactive drugs, as well as sociodemographic data which could influence drug consumption (age, gender, educational level, marital status of parents). Results: Ethnobotanical drug consumption had the highest lifetime prevalence (37.7%), the second most often used drug was cannabis (marijuana) with a lifetime prevalence of 35.2%. Males and females differed significantly in the use of marijuana (p = 0.023) and ethnobotanical drugs (p = 0.008) in the last 12 months, male respondents used more of these psychoactive substances. In the case of children with divorced parents the last 12 months marijuana use (p = 0.032) and ethnobotanical drug use (p = 0.013) was significantly higher than in the case of children whose parents were not divorced. Conclusions: The survey results show the importance of the development of health education programs and drug-prevention strategies for vulnerable goups (festival visitors, minors, children with divorced parents)

Open access

Mojmír Mach


The year 2010 is not gone yet but we already know that this year will be associated with one of the biggest losses in pharmacology and toxicology. On Tuesday, April 13, 2010, at the age of 97, one of the most influential pharmacologists in Eastern Europe, Professor Helena Rašková has left us. Her wisdom, generosity, kindness and hard work made it possible to create a positive environment for research and education, although sometimes she had to fight hard. Her incredible story "How I became a Pharmacologist" wroted by Prof. Rašková herself documents how rich and inspirational her life was [Rašková H. (1997). Pharmacology & Toxicology 80: 255-261]. In this issue you will find mostly works of her colleagues and friends who would like to pay homage to the mother and grandmother of Czecho-Slovak pharmacology and toxicology and to the wonderful person who Prof. Helena Rašková was. She touched many people in her lifetime, affected many and will truly be missed.

Open access

Doroteja Kuhar and Marjetka Hovnik-Keršmanc

Razširjenost Tobaka, Alkohola in Drugih Drog Med Dolenjskimi Mladostniki na Podlagi Raziskave ESPAD

Namen: Z raziskavo smo želeli oceniti stanje na področju uživanja drog pri dolenjskih mladostnikih in trend na tem področju v zadnjih štirih letih.

Metode: Ciljna populacija so bili dijaki 1. letnikov dolenjskih srednjih šol, rojeni leta 1991, ki so anonimno odgovarjali na vprašalnik ESPAD. Vzorec je bil reprezentativen za vse tipe šol in za oba spola. Rezultate smo primerjali z rezultati istoimenske raziskave iz leta 2003, prav tako izvedene na Dolenjskem.

Rezultati: Najpogosteje uporabljeni drogi sta bili alkohol in tobak. 61 % dijakov je vsaj enkrat v življenju že kadilo tobak, v zadnjem mesecu je 11 in več cigaret dnevno pokadilo 7 % dijakov. 95 % dijakov je že pilo alkohol, več kot polovica jih je že bila opitih, 24,5 % v zadnjih 30 dneh. 17 % dijakov je vsaj enkrat poskusilo marihuano ali hašiš, hlape je že vdihavalo 12 % dijakov, pomirjevala, ki jih ni predpisal zdravnik, pa so vzeli 3 % vprašanih. Druge nedovoljene droge je že poskusilo 0,5-4 % dijakov.

Zaključek: V zadnjih štirih letih se je med dolenjskimi mladostniki povečala raba alkohola in nekaterih nedovoljenih drog, medtem ko se je delež rednih kadilcev med njimi znižal.

Open access

D Șeicaru, Dorina Constantinescu, Corina Frecus and D Bulucea


Introduction: Heterozygous β-thalassemia represents the mild form of the β-thalassemic syndromes, being compatible with normal lifetime. The importance of β-thalassemia consists in the fact that it maintains the "defective gene" in the population, favoring the appearance of new cases of Cooley's anaemia, the severe form of β-thalassemic syndromes. Current data estimate that 7% of the world's population is bearing β-thalassemia, over 400,000 children with β thalassemia being born annually, therefore the WHO estimates the doubling of this figure in the coming years.

Material and methods: We carried out a retrospective clinical study of over 450 cases diagnosed with β-thalassemia in the Dolj, Constanța and Vâlcea counties, along a period of 10 years (2001-2010), out of which we analyzed the family tree of 10 cases throughout 3-4 generations, starting from the cases of children diagnosed with β-thalassemia.

Results: The number of heterozygous subjects that emerged over 3-4 generations was of 60 cases with β-thalassemia and 9 cases with Cooley's anaemia. Thus, starting from the 10 cases of β-thalassemic married subjects (great grandfathers/great grandmothers, grandfathers/ grandmothers) along 3-4 generations (over a period of 70-80 years) the number of new β-thalassemia cases was 5.4 times higher.

Conclusions: According to our results, the last generation of the studied children and adolescents shows the presence of a total of 18 subjects with β-thalassemia, suggesting the increasing amount of heterozygotes in the population.

Open access

Andrzej Wincewicz, Sławka Urbaniak-Wasik, Antoinette Urbaniak, Marlena Mościcka-Rylska, Martyna Woltanowska, Mariusz Koda, Stanislaw Sulkowski and Joanna Reszeć


This paper presents a review on retinal gliosis illustrated by series of three cases of patients (a 39-year-old man and a 35-year-old woman with massive retinal gliosis (MRG) and a 51-year-old man with truly focal nodular gliosis of retina) with intraocular tumor-like masses and loss of vision, who recently suffered from painful inflammation of eyeball and who classically had a history of remote ocular trauma, onset of blindness early in lifetime or gradual but progressive loss of sight. The diagnosis of this pathological entity is given for the lesions that are composed of GFAP strongly positive, elongated, fusiform cells consistent with fibrillary astrocytes. As illustrated in cases from our pathological practice, PAS gave positive patchy disseminated reaction in form of cellular densely purplish granules in minority of cells representing glycogen storing. This feature could be consistent with PAS-positive Müller cells that also constitute retinal gliosis as one of cellular components of normal retina that is induced to reactive proliferation. Thus, the paper presents histological background and differential diagnosis of the entity.

Open access

Angel M. Dzhambov and Donka D. Dimitrova


Background: Noise pollution is considered a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Both are highly prevalent in Bulgaria, but their association has not been studied sufficiently.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of IHD associated with road traffic (Lden) and lifetime occupational noise exposure (LONE) in a Bulgarian sample.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 513 residents of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. A questionnaire asked about doctor-diagnosed IHD, LONE and confounding factors. Lden was derived from official noise map after geocoding participants’ addresses. In log-link Poisson regressions we investigated the relative risks of prevalent IHD. Sensitivity analyses examined subgroup differences.

Results: Lden ≥ 65 dB was associated with higher risk (RR=1.84, 95% CI: 0.61, 5.57) of IHD in long-term residents (≥ 20 years). LONE was associated with RR=1.76 (0.82, 3.78) for ever-exposed; and RR=2.35 (1.00, 5.52) for 15 - 47 years exposure.

Conclusions: Exposure to Lden≥65 dB was associated with non-significantly higher risk of IHD. Longer LONE was consistently associated with higher risk. In some subgroups the effect of noise was more pronounced.