. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014; 129: S1-45. 11. Grams ME, Chow EK, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 62: 245-252. 12. Hoerger TJ, Wittenborn JS, Segel JE et al. A health policy model of CKD: 2. The cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria screening. Am J
Carmine Zoccali, Samar Abd ElHafeez, Evangelia Dounousi, Rossana Anastasi, Giovanni Tripepi and Francesca Mallamaci
Thilo Dörk and N Bogdanova
Over the last few years, evidence has been accumulated that several susceptibility genes exist that differentially impact on the lifetime risk for breast or ovarian cancer. High-to-moderate penetrance alleles have been identified in genes involved in DNA double-strand break signaling and repair, and many low-penetrance susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies. In this review, we briefly summarize present knowledge about breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes and discuss their implications for risk prediction and therapy.
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Antonieta Mora-Tiscareño, Maricela Francolira, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Bernardo Peña-Cruz, Carolina Palacios-López, Hongtu Zhu, Linglong Kong, Nicolás Mendoza-Mendoza, Hortencia Montesinoscorrea, Lina Romero, Gildardo Valencia-Salazar, Michael Kavanaugh and Silvestre Frenk
Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.
H.U. Lüleyap, D. Onatoğlu, A.Y. Tahiroğlu, D. Alptekin, M.B. Yılmaz, S. Çetiner, A. Pazarbaşı, İ. Ünal and A. Avcı
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological disease characterized with obsessions and compulsions. Obsessive compulsive disorder occurs with an autoimmune mechanism after Group A β hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infection. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine, as well as having an important role in the apoptosis mechanism of autoimmune diseases. It is expressed by the TNF-α gene. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the TNF-α gene promoter region -308 (G>A) and -850 (C>T) polymorphisms and OCD. In this study, ages of the OCD patients and the control group ranged between 4 and 12 years. We studied two patient groups, one included childhood onset OCD patients (n = 49) and the control group was composed of healthy children (n = 58). Patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) criteria and with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime (KSAD-S-PL) version. For identifying the polyorphisms, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods were used.
For the -308 polymorphism, 45 of 49 OCD patients’ results were completed, and for the -850 polymorphism, 47 of 49 OCD patients’ results were completed. According to our statistical results, there is a positive relationship between OCD and the -308 polymorphism (p <0.001) but no association between OCD and the -850 polymorphism (p = 0.053). There is no positive relationship between antistreptolysin O (ASO) titers and the -308 polymorphism (p = 0.953) but there is an important significance between the -850 polymorphism and ASO (p = 0.010). There is no positive relationship between gender of patients and OCD (p = 0.180) and no positive association between ASO and gender (p = 0.467). According to our results, we hypothesize that we can propose the mutant AA genotype for the -308 polymorphism, and that the mutant CT genotype for the -850 polymorphism may be used as molecular indicators for OCD.
Selma Avdagić, Irena Barić, Irena Keser, Ivana Rumbak and Zvonimir Šatalić
affecting bone mass. Similarity of bone density among members of healthy families. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:61-7. Ferrari S, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Bonjour JP. Familial resemblance for bone mineral mass is expressed before puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:358-61. Ulrich CM, Georgiou CC, Snow-Harter CM, Gillis DE. Bone mineral density in mother-daughter pairs: relations to lifetime exercise, lifetime milk consumption, and calcium supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:72-9. McGuigan FEA
Dubravka Zlatarć, Josip Pandurć, Mirko Koršić and Damir Dodig
;20:44-8. Rideout CA, McKay HA, Barr SI. Self-reported lifetime physical activity and areal bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women: the importance of teenage activity. Calcif Tissue Int 2006:79:214-22. Gusi N, Raimundo A, Leal A. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2006;30:92. Russel AS, Morrison RT. An assessment of the new "SCORE" index as a predictor of osteoporosis in women. Scand J Rheumatol 2001
T.I. Vachev, V.K. Stoyanova, H.Y. Ivanov, I.N. Minkov and N.T. Popov
References 1. Perala J, Suvisaari J, Saarni SI, Kuoppasalmi K, Isometsä E, Pirkola S, et al. Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64(1): 19-28. 2. Ng MY, Levinson DF, Faraone SV, Suarez BK, DeLisi Le, Arinami T, et al. Meta analysis of 32 genome-wide linkage studies of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2009; 14(8): 774-785. 3. Shi J, Levinson DF, Duan J, Sanders AR, Zheng Y, Pe’er I, et al. Common variants on chromosome 6p22.1 are associated
Iwona Markiewicz-Górka, Lidia Januszewska, Aleksandra Michalak, Adam Prokopowicz, Ewa Januszewska, Natalia Pawlas and Krystyna Pawlas
References 1. Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M, Friberg L. T Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2007. 2. Matović V, Buha A, Bulat Z, Đukić-Ćosić D. Cadmium toxicity revisited: focus on oxidative stress induction and interactions with zinc and magnesium. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2011;62:65-76. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2075 3. Brzóska M, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Low-level exposure to cadmium during the lifetime increases the risk of osteoporosis and factures of the lumbar spine
Jerome-Philippe Garsi, Eric Samson, Laetitia Chablais, Sergey Zhivin, Christine Niogret and Dominique Laurier
. BMC Med Res Methodol 2010;10:79. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-10-79 32. Ibrahim JG, Chen MH, Kim S. Bayesian variable selection for the Cox regression model with missing covariates. Lifetime Data Anal 2008;14:496-520. doi: 10.1007/s10985-008-9101-5 33. Ibrahim JG, Zhu H, Tang N. Model Selection Criteria for Missing-Data Problems Using the EM Algorithm. J Am Stat Assoc 2008;103;1648-58. PMID: 19693282 34. Advisory Group on Ionizing Radiation (AGIR). Potential mechanism of cardiovascular injury and their relevance to radiation
Selma Avdagić, Irena Barić, Irena Keser, Ivana Cecić, Zvonimir Šatalić, Jasminka Bobić and Milica Gomzi
, Savage JM, Kemper HCG, Ralston SH, Smith GD. Relationship between physical activity and bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Bone 2002;30:792-8. Matkovic V, Goel PK, Badenhop-Stevens NE, Landoll JD, Li B, Ilich JZ, Skugor M, Nagode LA, Mobley SL, Ha EJ, Hangartner TN, Clairmont A. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in females from childhood to young adulthood: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:175-88. Wallace LS, Ballard JE. Lifetime