Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Evolutionary Biology x
Clear All
Open access

Mario Novak, Timka Alihodžić and Mario Šlaus

Abstract

Large bilateral auditory exostoses were recorded in the skeleton of an adult male buried in the Roman period necropolis of Zadar-Relja (the Roman colony of Iader) in southern Croatia. As the occurrence of auditory exostoses in both past and modern populations has been correlated with prolonged exposure to cold water, the authors propose that during his lifetime this individual performed activities requiring frequent contact with cold water for an extended period of time. Apart from auditory exostoses, this individual also exhibits other pathological changes including pronounced skeletal robustness, benign cortical defects at the insertion of the pectoralis major muscles on both humeri and at the attachment sites of the costo-clavicular ligaments on both clavicles, and vertebral osteoarthritis in the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. The most plausible explanation for all these changes is that this person spent most of his life working aboard a sea vessel as a sailor, boat builder or fisherman, and whose duties included frequent and intensive use of oars. This observation is based on the geographic and climatic location of Zadar, the described skeletal changes, the archaeological context of the site, recovered material artifacts and written historic sources and comparisons with similar studies.

Open access

Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat and Jaspreet Kaur

Abstract

This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr) to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site). Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski

(6713):743–6. Williams G. 1957. Pleiotropy, nautral selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11:398–411. Zimniak P. 2012. What is the proximal cause of aging? Front Genet 3:189. Ziomkiewicz A, Sancilio A, Galbarczyk A, Klimek M, Jasienska G, Bribiescas RG. 2016. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women. PLoS One 11(1):e0145753.

Open access

Piotr Chmielewski

vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 37:614–36. Hayflick L. 1993. Aspects of cellular aging. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 3:207–22. Hayflick L. 1994. How and why we age. New York: Ballantine Books. Hayflick L. 2000. The future of ageing. Nature 408:267–9. Hayflick L. 2007. Biological aging is no longer an unsolved problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1100:1-13. Heppner FL, Ransohoff RM, Becher B. 2015. Immune attack: the role of inflammation in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 16:358–72. Hotamisligil GS. 2006

Open access

Krzysztof Szostek

1812 , S. Pfeiffer, R. F. Williamson (eds.), Dundrun Press, Toronto, pp. 263-68 Schweissing M. M., G. Grupe, 2003, Stable strontium isotopes in human teeth and bone: A key to migration events of the late Roman period in Bavaria , J. Archaeol. Sci. , 30 , 1373-83 Sealy J., R. Armstrong, C. Schrire, 1995, Beyond lifetime averages: Tracing life histories through isotopic analysis of different calcified tissues from archaeological human skeletons , Antiquity , 69 , 290-300 Sealy J. C., N

Open access

Sandra Valérie Constantin

Abstract

This article questions the relevance of the notion of generation to describe the cohort who lives in Beijing and who was born in the 1980s and early 1990s, after the implementation of the reforms and opening-up policy in China. The analysis relies on 627 questionnaires collected in Beijing in 2010. The sample was stratified by age and sex, and, based on quotas; it was split into five age groups (18-26 year-olds, 33-41 year-olds, 48-56 year-olds, 63-71 year-olds and 78-86 year-olds). The respondents were questioned on their perception of turning points and socio-historical changes that occurred during their lifetime. After having analysed the data in a comparative perspective, we came to conclusion that the word generation is suitable to describe the young people from Beijing born in the 1980s and early 1990s not only because they do share autobiographical and collective historical memories, but also because these memories have by and large taken place between their adolescence and entry into adulthood (supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a reminiscence bump).

Open access

Raissa De Gruttola

., Wan, S. and Walf, K. (eds.). Bible in Modern China: the Literary and Intellectual Impact. Sankt Agustin-Nettetal: Institut Monumenta Serica, pp.101-122. Zetzsche, J. O., 1999a. The Bible in China: the History of the Union Version or the Culmination of Protestant Missionary Bible Translation in China. Sankt Augustin-Nettetal: Monumenta Serica Institute. Zetzsche, J. O., 1999b. The Work of Lifetimes: Why the Union Version Took Nearly Three Decades to Complete. In Eber, I., Wan, S. and Walf, K. (eds.). Bible in Modern China: the Literary