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Nina Volkmann, Nicole Kemper and Anke Römer

References ADR (2000). ADR-Recommendation 3.1 – Performance test for functional traits of bulls and cows (health, reproduction, lifetime, exterior, milkability). Accessed Apr. 11, 2017 www.adrweb.de/services/files/.../20160412%20ADR-Empfehlung%203.1.pdf Bazeley K.J., Barrett D.C., Williams P.D., Reyher K.K. (2016). Measuring the growth rate of UK dairy heifers to improve future productivity. Vet. J., 212: 9–14. De Rensis F., Scaramuzzi R.F. (2003). Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow – a review. Theriogenology, 60

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Anna Sawa, Kamil Siatka and Sylwia Krężel-Czopek

References Adamczyk K., Makulska J., Jagusiak W., Węglarz A. (2017). Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows. Animal, 11: 327–334. Ahlman T., Berglund B., Rydhmer L., Strandberg E. (2011). Culling reasons in organic and conventional dairy herds and genotype by environment interaction for longevity. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 1568–1575. Bayram B., Yanar M., Akbulut O. (2009). The effect of average daily gain and age at first calving on reproductive and

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Peter Balogh, Wojciech Kapelański, Hanna Jankowiak, Lajos Nagy, Sandor Kovacs, Laszlo Huzsvai, Jozsef Popp, Janos Posta and Angela Soltesz

., Greenacre M. (2007). Correspondence analysis in R, with two- and three-dimensional graphics: The ca package. J. Stat. Soft., 20: 1-13. Nikkil ä M.T., Stalder K.J., Mote B.E., Rothschild M.F., Gunsett F.C., Johnson A.K., Karriker L.A., Boggess M.V., Serenius T.V. (2013). Genetic associations for gilt growth, compositional, and structural soundness traits with sow longevity and lifetime reproductive performance. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 1570-1579. Pluym L., Van Nuffel A., Dewulf J., Cools A., Vangroenweghe F., Van Hoore-beke S., Maes D. (2011

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Zbigniew Sobek, Jolanta Różańska-Zawieja, Anna Nienartowicz-Zdrojewska and Beata Dybionka

References Agerholm J.S. B endixem C.,Andersen O.Arnbjerg J. (2001). Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves. J. Vet. Diagn. Inves., 13: 283-289. Antkowiak I. Pyllewski J. Dorynek Z. (2003). Lifetime production performance and the causes of culling of cows in the “Lubianka” fami (OHZ Lubiana) (in Polish). Anim. Prod. Rev. Pol. Soc. Anim. Prod. 68: 123-130. CRVNL (2013). [<https://www.crv4all.nl/>], last access date: 15-06-2013. CRVNL (2013). [<https://www.global.crv4all.nl/>], last

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Zygmunt Litwińczuk, Paweł Żółkiewski, Witold Chabuz and Przemysław Jankowski

persistencies from producer-recorded health data and test-day yields. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 1785–1795. Archer S.C., McCoy F., Wapenaar W., Green M.J. (2013). Association between somatic cell count early in the first lactation and the lifetime milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 2951–2959. Archer S.C., McCoy F., Wapenaar W., Green M.J. (2014). Bayesian evaluation of budgets for endemic disease control: An example using management changes to reduce milk somatic cell count early in the first lactation of Irish dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med., 113: 80

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Magdalena Sobczyńska, Tadeusz Blicharski and Mirosław Tyra

performance. Proc. 20th International Symposium “Animal Science Days”, 19-21.09.2012, Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, pp. 199-203. Gill P. (2007). Nutritional management of the gilt for lifetime productivity - feeding for fitness or fatness? Proc. London Swine Conference, 3-4.04.2007, London, Ontario, pp. 83-99. Hoge M.D., Bates R.O. (2011). Developmental factors that influence sow longevity. J. Anim. Sci., 89: 1238-1245. Holm B., Bakken M., Klemetsdal G., Vangen O. (2004). Genetic correlations between reproduction and production

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Krzysztof Adamczyk, Wojciech Jagusiak and Joanna Makulska

References Adamczyk K., Pokorska J., Makulska J., Earley B., Mazurek M. (2013). Genetic analysis and evaluation of behavioural traits in cattle. Livest. Sci., 154: 1–12. Adamczyk K., Makulska J., Jagusiak W., Węglarz A. (2017). Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows. Animal, 11: 327–334. Boichard D., Brochard M. (2012). New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle. Animal, 6: 544–550. Buckley F., Lopez-Villalobos N., Heins B

Open access

Ülo Väli

on dispersal distances. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 1–13. Kontkanen H, Nevalainen T & Lõhmus A 2004: Röövlinnud ja metsamajandus [Birds of prey and forestry]. Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus, Tallinn, 92. [in Estonian] Kotkaklubi & 5DVision 2017: Birdmap. Retrieved January 21, 2017 from http://birdmap.5dvision.ee . Krüger O 2002: Dissecting common buzzard lifespan and lifetime reproductive success: the relative importance of food, competition, weather, habitat and individual attributes. Oecologia 133: 474–482. Lõhmus A 2003: Are certain

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Kamal Kumar Gupta, Mohd Shazad and Shailendra Kumar

consumption to the lifetime reproductive success of female field crickets ( Gryllus bimaculatus ). Ecological Entomology, 13 (1): 57–69. T hornhill R., A lcock J. 1983. The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. T ram U., W olfner M.F. 1999. Male seminal fluid proteins are essential for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster . Genetics, 153 (2): 837–844. T subaki Y., O no T. 1985. The adaptive significance of non-contact mate guarding by males of the dragonfly Nannophya pygmaea R ambur (Odonata

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Kamila Dmochowska, Karol Giejdasz, Monika Fliszkiewicz and Krystyna Żółtowska

Changes in the Antioxidative System of the Red Mason Bee (Osmia Rufa) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Induced by Artificially Elongated Diapause

Osmia rufa as a polylectic insect is used in the pollination of numerous plants. The usefulness of this insect for plant breeders is considerably limited because of the short flight periods of the insects in the natural environment. In order to break this limitation, the wintering period of the insects in cocoons is elongated. The temperature is maintained at 4°C up to the time of plant blooming. This treatment does shortens the lifetime of the insects which may be the result of oxidative stress. Such results led to the examination of the selected components of antioxidative system. These components are: total antioxidative status, content of glutathione and activity of peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase in O. rufa emerged in spring, according to their biological clock, and emerged in summer - after elongated diapause. It was observed that diapause elongation unprofitably influenced the antioxidative system of a bee. A statistically significant decrease in total antioxidative status, and activity of both antioixidative enzymes - peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase, was noted. The changes in the glutathione level in turn, were insignificant. In our opinion, the lower efficiency of antioxidative systems of the red mason bee emerged in summer, may limit their response ability to endo- and exogenous factors influencing oxidative stress. The results of our study are the first publication concerning an antioxidative system in mason bees.