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The Ni-base superalloys are used in the aircraft industry for the production of aero engine most stressed parts, turbine blades or turbine discs. Quality of aero jet engine components has a significant influence on the overall lifetime of a jet engine as itself as well as the whole airplane. From this reason a dendrite arm spacing, grain size, morphology, number and value of γ′-phase are very important structural characteristics for blade or discs lifetime prediction. The methods of quantitative metallography are very often used for evaluation of structural characteristics mentioned above. The high-temperature effect on structural characteristics and application of quantitative methods evaluation are presented in this paper. The two different groups of Ni-base alloys have been used as experimental material: cast alloys ZhS6K and IN713LC, which are used for small turbine blades production and wrought alloys EI 698VD and EI 929, which are used for turbine disc production. Selected alloys have been evaluated in the starting stage and after applied heat-treatment at 850°C for 24 hrs. This applied heat-treatment causes structural changes in all alloys groups. In cast alloy dendritic structure is degraded and gamma prime average size has grown what has a negative influence on turbine blade creep rupture life. Wrought alloys show partially grain boundary melting and grain size changed due to recrystallization what causes mechanical properties decreasing – ultimate tensile strength mainly.
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Marketers increasingly use word of mouth to promote products or acquire new customers. But is such companystimulated WOM effective? Are customers who are referred by other customers really worth the effort? A recent study clearly says “yes”. In a study of almost 10,000 accounts at a German bank, the referred customers turned out to be 25 % more profi table than customers acquired by other means. Over a 33-month period, they generated higher profi t margins, were more loyal and showed a higher customer lifetime value. The difference in lifetime value between referred and non-referred customers was most pronounced among younger people and among retail (as opposed to private banking) customers. The reward of € 25 per acquired customer clearly paid off. Given the average difference in customer lifetime value of € 40, this amount implied a return on investment (ROI) of roughly 60 % over a six-year period. The encouraging results of this study, however, do not imply that “viral-for-hire” works in each and every case. Referral programs would be most beneficial for products and services that customers might not appreciate immediately. Products and services that imply some kind of risk would also benefit to a more than average degree from referrals because prospects are likely to feel more confi dent when a trusted person has positive experiences. Companies should consider carefully which prospects to target with referral programs and how large a referral fee to provide.
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