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The Ni-base superalloys are used in the aircraft industry for the production of aero engine most stressed parts, turbine blades or turbine discs. Quality of aero jet engine components has a significant influence on the overall lifetime of a jet engine as itself as well as the whole airplane. From this reason a dendrite arm spacing, grain size, morphology, number and value of γ′-phase are very important structural characteristics for blade or discs lifetime prediction. The methods of quantitative metallography are very often used for evaluation of structural characteristics mentioned above. The high-temperature effect on structural characteristics and application of quantitative methods evaluation are presented in this paper. The two different groups of Ni-base alloys have been used as experimental material: cast alloys ZhS6K and IN713LC, which are used for small turbine blades production and wrought alloys EI 698VD and EI 929, which are used for turbine disc production. Selected alloys have been evaluated in the starting stage and after applied heat-treatment at 850°C for 24 hrs. This applied heat-treatment causes structural changes in all alloys groups. In cast alloy dendritic structure is degraded and gamma prime average size has grown what has a negative influence on turbine blade creep rupture life. Wrought alloys show partially grain boundary melting and grain size changed due to recrystallization what causes mechanical properties decreasing – ultimate tensile strength mainly.
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This document exposes the conflict from the Post-Rational cognitive perspective, understanding the conflict as a relational phenomenon, which emerges when the need of recognition is exposed to its contrary: the non-recognition. “To know oneself” means in fact, to recognize oneself through the mediation of the other (Castiglioni, 2008). An individual develops himself by recognizing the “otherness” that constitutes him. The self (idem/identity) that goes out toward the other and then returns as ipse/selfhood, having acquired self-awareness through the other (Ricoeur, 1993). For this reason, recognition is a fundamental element in the building of human subjectivity (Honneth 1997). Identity is a continuous process that lasts a lifetime. It contains a central nucleus that ensures continuity by which a person is able to recognize him/ herself. In this way individuals learn to define who they are through interactions with others, especially those whom are more significant. Being recognized by others and by the environment offer the individual a sense of unity and coherence about himself. Conflict arises when the other or the environment becomes a threat to the survival of the subjectivity; when the absence or lack of recognition leads to harm in a person (Tello, 2011). Relational experiences are able to engender and ensure recognition, while holding onto an indispensable acceptance of individual differences. They thus allow each one to bring forth their own unique identity.
Human identity is a complex process linked to the subject and his environment, both constantly evolving. Personality is developed and changed throughout lifetime, but it has a core that remains constant.
Thus a person can secure his continuity; he recognizes himself and is recognized by the others as time goes by. In fact, we are all the same, even after experiencing changes and years later.
The constitution of the other and the self are – from the phenomenological point of view – two components of the same process, which is the origin of the subjectivity of self and the objectivity of me. These are conditions for the identity’s construction, a continuous process that takes place throughout time. (Ballerini, 2005)
Human tendency to the community emerges with priority from the above definition. That deep desire of being part of a social group interprets others as constituent of the identity of the self. (Pulcini, 2002)
“Having an identity” actually means not only a set of characteristics noticed by ourselves after actions done or the “image” of us, but also to be recognized by the rest of society. (Andrea, 2004)
Therefore, community turns out in the ultimate horizon that responds to an individual’s recognition need.
The recognition of self by me is linked to the issue of the recognition of self through the other until mutual recognition as reciprocal act is reached. (Ricoeur, 2005)
Hence, “gift” becomes an emblem of mutual recognition, highlighting the relational and inter-subjective structure of the person.
The identity development goes through the mutual recognition experience and gift. (Castiglioni, 2008)
Somebody who gives himself recognizes the others and simultaneously, participates in his constitution and his self-understanding.
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