Diogo Monteiro, Carla Chicau Borrego, Carlos Silva, João Moutão, Daniel Almeida Marinho and Luís Cid
acquired, it is believed that the youth are not fully capable of adopting a differentiated concept of ability in achievement contexts.
Influenced by the Nicholls’s (1984) perspective and under the Youth Enrichment Through Sport (YES) project, Smith et al. (2008) chose to develop an age-appropriate measure of motivational climate (MCSYS: Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports) derived from the PMCSQ-2, and it has a Flesh–Kincaid reading level of Grade 3.3. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level index is one way to measure and report the readability of English text
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Lee AJ, Lin WH. The influence of gender and somatotype on single-leg upright standing
Błaszczyk W. Janusz, Monika Beck, Justyna Szczepańska, Dorota Sadowska, Bogdan Bacik, Grzegorz Juras and Kajetan J. Słomka
results of DI and the SV azimuth in young healthy subjects document that, to maintain the most stable posture, the neuromuscular system must allocate more effort to control AP stability. This can be seen in the mean value of both directional indices (DIAP = 0.77 vs DIML = 0.49). The invariant value of the SV azimuth (0.93 radian) in these subjects also documents this feature of postural control. It is significant, however, that measures in young subjects are rigorously controlled regardless of the visual input. This fixed angle and the SV set the optimal level of
al., 2001 ; Duda and Nicholls, 1992 ), we also assumed that satisfaction and boredom in school would be negatively related.
As the motivational mechanisms within this research were assumed to be comparable across gender groups, we tested the hypothesized model for both boys and girls. We expected the model to be invariant across gender.
A representative sample of 967 Spanish students (475 boys and 492 girls) between 11 and 16 years old (M = 13.54 ± 1.8 years) participated in this study. We excluded 110 students from the initial
which means that λ * decreases with stretch velocity (v > 0 for muscle stretching and v < 0 for shortening); |j is the sensitivity of the threshold to velocity that possibly can be controlled by dynamic γ-MNs. Term Q is a combined measure of the influence of intermuscular interactions and the history-dependent intrinsic state of MNs (e.g., associated with plateau potentials). In the supra-threshold range, recruitment of motor units and active muscle force increase with the difference between the actual and threshold muscle lengths. Threshold λ * defines
kinematic variables exist ( Serrien et al., 2015 ), the timing seems again to be relatively equal between male and female players ( van den Tillaar and Cabri, 2012 ).
The sequence is not always strictly proximal-to-distal (elbow before shoulder; for a review see Marshall and Elliot, 2000 ) and task specific adaptations occur. However, overall, the evidence seems to point towards the proximal-to-distal sequence being a relatively invariant characteristic of throwing motions in experienced players. Therefore, talent identification programs may potentially benefit from