national household surveys on employment-age profiles in the transactional sex market.
A major barrier to measuring determinants of employment in transactional sex is the dearth of data on female participation in transactional sex from general population surveys. The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), collected in over 90 low-and middle-income countries and often used in economic analyses of risky sexual behavior including participation in the transactional sex market (e.g., see De Walque 2008, Fortson 2009, Friedman 2016 , Lucas and Wilson 2017 ), typically only
studies on the relationship between child health and socioeconomic outcomes, this study uses anthropometric measures of child health rather than subjective health status. Examples of papers in development studies that employ anthropometric measures of health are Domingues and Barre (2013) for Mozambique, and Brainerd (2010) for the Soviet Union. Also, the longitudinal design of the IFLS allows for the elimination of all unobserved child- and household-level time-invariant characteristics that are correlated with the explanatory variables, removing a major source of
Effrosyni Adamopoulou, Emmanuele Bobbio, Marta De Philippis and Federico Giorgi
productivity at the two-digit sector level and with a measure of competition (Herfindahl index). This evidence is indirect and only suggestive, and we leave to future research a full test of our hypothesis and an exploration of its implications.
The paper proceeds as follows. After describing the data in section 2, we replicate composition studies by employing a standard tool in labor economics to assess differences among groups of workers, the BO decomposition, which we augment with employers’ characteristics – section 3. We proceed by applying on wage data a standard
distribution of insurance in an economy.
In this paper, we directly approach the potential costs, inefficiencies, and inequities of aiding family members. We examine parental behavior in the year that an adult, non-residential child experiences an unemployment spell. Using the 1985-2013 waves ofthe Panel Study on Income Dynamics, a longitudinal dataset that allows for parent-child linkages across households within the same wave of the survey, we measure the concurrent changes to the parent’s consumption, income, and savings during child’s unemployment. Due to quality
, under 50 per cent of workers were covered by individual level pay agreements. No social partnership model has ever been operational in NI. With regard to employment protection, while no standardized measures of employment protection legislation (EPL) are available for NI, data do exist at a UK level. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developments (OECD’s) strictness of employment protection index runs from 0 to 6, where 6 is the strictest level; Ireland’s EPL level in 2013 using this metric was 1.4 compared to the UK’s of 1.1, suggesting that levels of
quantities, whereas medium-skilled migration does not seem to matter. Koenig (2009) confirms the trade-creating effect using firm-level data on French exports. She shows that this effect is enhanced when immigrants are older and more educated.
Finally, Aleksynska and Peri (2014) use a more carefully defined measure of migration business networks to quantify its impact on bilateral trade and to shed light on the information effect of migration on trade. Using data on immigrant occupations from OECD, the DIOC-E database, the authors consider in each country those
) ). Second, the model allows correlation between individual-specific time-invariant effects, corr( u 1 ijt , u 2 ijt ) ≠ 0. To test the significance of the childcare decision variable, I considered two specifications of equation (1) with and without cc ijt . I estimated the system (1, 2) using the bivariate probit model.
The parameters of interests are as follows:
a 1 that measures the impact of the reform on mothers’ employment participation at extensive margin and
a 3 that measures changes in labor supply of females who worked prior to a childbirth. Given