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Regional dimension of firm level productivity determinants: the case of manufacturing and service firms in Ukraine

invariant to the intensity of use of observable factor inputs is often employed in the productivity measurement. This measure is called total factor productivity (TFP). The difference in TFP reflects variation in output produced from a fixed set of inputs. Firm with higher-TFP produce greater amounts of output with the same set of observable inputs than firms with lower-TFP. TFP is most easily seen in the formulation of a production function where output is the product of a function of observable inputs and a factor-neutral shifter. This means that TFP is a residual. Over

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The determinants of local public spending on culture

models, I used both fixed-effects and random-effects estimations. The Hausman test suggested that fixed-effects model is more effective. But because of ‘within transformation’, it is not possible to analyse the effect of time-invariant variables. Also, the fixed-effect analysis focuses on changes and presents the determinants of changes in studied spending, whilst the goal of this article is to find the determinants of variations between municipalities ( Clark and Linzer 2015 ; Bell and Jones 2015 ). The basic equation estimated in our models is E i

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Factors Affecting the Development of Voluntary Pension Schemes in CEE Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

current working generation should prolong their working lives or/and make additional savings. In the past decade, many CEE countries took measures to boost the supplementary savings for retirement. They included introducing new types of voluntary pension schemes and more favourable financial incentives. Nonetheless, according to OECD simulations of the modelled pension replacement rates, the voluntary pensions in CEE countries, except for Czechia, are still not developed enough to substantially increase the average adequacy of future pension benefits (OECD 2013). As

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What Determines Export Performances in High‑tech Industries

.1 % 24.7 % Manufacture of consumer electronics 3.1 % 27.8 % Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation; watches and clocks 9.6 % 8.9 % Manufacture of irradiation, electro-medical and electrotherapeutic equipment 2.6 % 0.4 % Manufacture of optical instruments and photographic equipment 1.8 % 1.4 % Manufacture of magnetic and optical media 0.2 % 0.1 % Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery 17.6 % 2.8 % Source: Authors’ own calculations based on the

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