politicians is likely to intensify these effects. Again and again, populists such as Victor Orbán portrayed Muslims as a burden for their host countries’ welfare systems ( Kokot 2015 ). In line with these theoretical arguments, we assume that collective deprivation matters for the support of a Muslim ban.
H9: Individuals who perceive their in-groups as collectively deprived vis-à-vis out-groups are more likely to support a Muslim ban .
At this point, we want to recall that we assume invariant causal effects of the outlined social–psychological drivers of Islamophobia