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Open access

Olga Kosakowska and Weronika Czupa

Summary

Introduction: Common oregano is an important medicinal and aromatic plant, characterized by a high morphological and chemical variability.

Objective: The aim of the work was to determine the diversity of 14 common oregano populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of morphological and developmental traits as well as content and composition of essential oil in herb.

Methods: Observations and harvest of raw material were performed in the second year of plant vegetation. Morphological and developmental characters were estimated. Total content of essential oil was determined according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th. The composition of essential oil was carried out by gas chromatography.

Results: Populations differed in respect of examined traits, i.a.: plant's height from 52.13 to 88.66 cm, number of stems per plant from 45.6 to 123.3, number of internodes per stem from 4.6 to 9.2. Fresh mass of herb was at a level of 249.0–896.6 g per plant. Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.35 to 0.87%. Sabinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, p-cymene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide were the dominant compounds in essential oil.

Conclusions: Number of stems and fresh mass of herb differentiated examined populations at the highest degree. Most of populations were classified as a sabinyl chemotype rich in sesquiterpenes.

Open access

Katarzyna Bączek, Olga Kosakowska, Jarosław L. Przybył, Paula Kuźma, Marcin Ejdys, Mieczysław Obiedziński and Zenon Węglarz

Summary

The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids). Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant), number of shoots per m2 (64–243) and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm). Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1), while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives) were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1), while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.